TYPES OF TEACHING METHODS IN HISTORY

Posted by Emmanuel Mgina on 12:47 with 2 comments
             History is the records of past human activities that are taking place on the earth surface. Teaching methods are different principles and methods that are used to instruct students in a learning environment.
      The methods used by a teacher will depend on the skills or information the teacher would like to convey to their students. Some of the most common teaching methods are memorization, class participation, recitation, and demonstration. While these teaching methods are widely used, every instructor has a specific teaching method. Teachers must be flexible in their methods and often adjust their style of teaching to accommodate their students.
            Efficient teaching methods are essential tools that can help student’s achieve success in the classroom. Each student has a different personality and learning abilities. There are several factors that a teacher must consider when choosing a teaching method for their students. Some determining factors for selecting a teaching method include the student’s interest and background knowledge, as well as their environment and learning abilities. Teachers also help their students learn with various learning aids such as Auditory, Kinesthetic (collaborating), and Visual. Instructors use these teaching methods to help students understand and complete class assignments.
           Teaching methods often include lesson plans that students can use to help retain and recall information. Various forms of teaching methods used with lesson plans are explanation, demonstration, and collaboration. Explanation is similar to a lecture that provides detailed information about a specific subject. Demonstrations are used to provide visual learning opportunities from a different viewpoint, and collaboration allows students to part

TYPES OF TEACHING METHOD;
 There are two main types of teaching method which are non-participatory method and participatory method, they are considered as the major categories though on non-participatory methods only one type’s can used which is lecture method. This can be applied in the high population or large number of students in the class.
    The following are the major methods of teaching that are applied as the participatory methods of teaching especially in teaching  history;
Story telling method, this is mainly applied as the main method of teaching particularly in the low population. For stance when teaching in the class you mainly may decide to choose the certain topic and tell the story related so as to attract he students from understanding of the lesson.
            “In the class a teacher ensure that the time scheduled in the time
           Table the scheme of work the lesson plan and the lesson notes
          Are all flowing in a smooth way contrary to the preacher who
                      Had no scheme of work, lesson plan or table to follow.
                      This    gives a teacher a special position and
                      Differentiation or her from other professionals”

           Demonstration method. Teaching strategies is the careful plan of actions to achieve a goal, or the art of developing, or carryout such a scheme.  This is an elaborate and systematic plan of Action. This are all plan made to help learners to access the information.  Teaching strategies can apply for this and not for that.  Teaching strategies should aim at involving audio, visual, and audiovisual and kinesthetic. The demonstration method may be applied in small class different from lecture method that can be applied where the population is high.
           Questions and answers method. This method also refers to the system under which applied by teaching in the class to make sure that the students are memorizing and assure the understanding is becoming  very high in class.
           “The prior knowledge of the student is considered to be of very important.  From this fountain is where the trench of knowledge is
                    dug to make a big and wide canal of knowledge”[1].
So this assure the students with the teacher to share deferments issues
       Debates method. This is applied by the teacher depending on the nature of the class that whoever the class is small or large, it will enable a teacher to design on the changes upon a class. For example;
“Attaining of Instructional objectives depend on the method used.
    If the objectives need the student to list, mention or naming then the
            Teaching method, Strategies and Techniques must relate sting and mention”[2].
Example if the instructional objective require student to make soap.  The teaching method should be Experimental and Demonstration.
                    The guest of honor. Guest is a person who is new/ stranger who visiting a certain area with a certain purpose person who is not a native of certain place This method is one of the methods that can be applied in teaching history subject. Therefore under this method of teaching history a teacher is supposed to share also some ideas with the student though more knowledge is from the instructor.
 “The prior knowledge of the student is considered to be of very important. 
      From this fountain is where the trench of knowledge is dug to make a big
And wide canal of knowledge”[3].A teacher is an artist as in fact teaching itself is an art that requires somebody to create several methods or techniques to be applied teaching.

         Explanation method. This is the method under which the instructors tend to use the lesson notes from different sources to brainstorming his or her student and assuring them to understand the lesson as well. Here the teacher act as the main instructor and the students tend to listen to him or her when explaining.
“This should be done early in order to prepare
           students psychologically, to rise their morally and
    aspiration, make them exited and to meet the
                      emotional need of the student”[4].
           Study tour method. This method applied in small class where a teacher is advised to take the students out of the school compass so as to lean as from the different environment of study. For ristance the teaching may take the student to the historical sites when teaching them about the source of historical information. . (Title, status, experience, Belief or Philosophy).  Explain the importance of credibility Cloud Said
“This will make the student to know the importance of
 the phenomenon that they are studying. By doing that
then the learner may believe in what they are taught”[5].
Under such method a teaher has got the groung in eplainning the subject matters.
FACTORS THAT DETERMINE THE CHOICE OF THE METHOD OF TEACHING IN HISTORY;
There are several factors that determine the choice of the methods to applied in teaching history subject
            The nature of the learners. For example the slow learners or fast learners. If the number of slow learners in the class is higher than that of faster learners it will force a teacher to use such a method that is very easier for those slow learners to understand the lesson  or subject maters., some of them are as follows;
            The number of the students available in the given class. This will guide a teacher to choose the best method to be applied in teaching the particular subject that contained in the topics. For  example if the class has  about the number of student approaching may be 35 a teacher can easily manage that class easily rather than a  big class of 80 students.
           
             Availability of teaching and learning aids. For stance teaching materials that a teacher use to establish and use to the learners to emphasize the subject. The instructor will be forced to use a method that will enable the students to understand the lesson on time and become able to construct such a subject and run for all students.
            Educational philosophy of the country. The philosophy of country basing on education has got the great effects to the development of  the lesson as well as in choosing the methods which can be used to teach several subject maters in the country.
             Teacher’s ability and preference. If the teacher is very competent to the subject matter in which he or she is teaching the class it’s very easier for him or her to choose the best method of teaching such a subject.
             Cultural aspect of the society. For example if the certain society has their own behavior in studying a professional teaching actually look to the class and establish the method which can be easily understood for all students in a particular class.
            Examination set up. This also limits the method to be applied in teaching such a subject. For example the teachers always look for the examinations format and teach the students in a way that make them becoming able to answer such examination that are facing them.
               Time bound. The methods of teaching history are actually bounded by the time. So for the certain teacher to establish the method of teaching he or she should consider first the time that available for covering of the topic.

                            CONLUSSION;
                For any teacher who is teaching history he or she should understand that teaching history is an art, it requires somebody who is very creative in establishing the subject matter to be applied in teaching several topics for example teaching colonial economy topic is different from teaching the topic of nationalism so it need a creative teacher who may create different methods to be applied depending on the nature of the subject and topic. In the topic of establishment of colonialism a teacher may use story telling method the n after start the topic by the historical background of what is colonialism. it is quite different in teaching others subjects matters.


BIBLIOGRAPHY;
1.      Bello J. Y. (1981). Basic Principle of Teaching. John Willey and Sons Ibadan.
2.      Bishop. (1995) Curriculum Development: A Text book for Student Macmillan Publishers Limited London
3.      Geoffrey n. brown.(1967) A Guide for  Teachers in Africa .George Allen and Unwin ltd, Nigeria
4.      Has Lucky.(1963).The Teacher of History, Cambridge university press, Cambridge
5.      Hudgins, B.B. (1971).The Instructional Processes. Rand and Mc Nally company .Chicago
6.      Farrant, J.S. (1990) Principles and Practices of Education . Longman Group. UK. Limited Essex
7.      Michael, Murphy (1996) Plain English Dictionary (Harper Collins Publishers England
8.      Nacino,Brown, R, Oke, F.E.Brown, D.P. (1992) Curriculum and Instruction; An Introduction to Methods of Teaching. Macmillan Press Limited London