FIRST WORLD WAR

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INTRODUCTION
                                     MEANING OF THE FIRT WORLD WAR
The first world war was the war fought mainly in Europeans .It begins in 1914 up to 1918one one side were the British ,the other side were the French .the mission and the other  side were the Germany .  the Austria  and their alliance  the reasons for the war not concerned us we study the history of East Africa .The causes of war was disputed between European power Africans had nothing  to do with  this war .Unfortunately  ,they were to suffer because of this Europeans conflict.
PERIODIZATION OF THE WAR AND THE  MAJOR PARTICIPANTS
In November 1912, Russia was humiliated because of its inability to support Serbia during the Bosnian crisis of 1908 or the First Balkan War, and announced a major reconstruction of its military. On November 28, German Foreign Secretary Gottlieb von Jargon told the Reichstag (the German parliament), that
 "If Austria is forced, for whatever reason, to fight for its position
as a Great Power, then we must stand by her. As a result, British
Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey responded by warning Prince                                 Karl Lichnowsky, the German Ambassador in London, that if
Germany offered Austria a "blank coequal" for war in the
Balkans, then "the consequences of such a policy would
be incalculable”[1]
." To reinforce this point, R. B. Haldane, the Germanophile Lord Chancellor, met with Prince Lichnowsky to offer an explicit warning that if Germany were to attack France, Britain would intervene in France's
 CAUSES OF THE WAR FIRST WORLD WAR
Formation of alliance this was another causes of First World War. These alliances include Triple entente, which include Britain, France, and Russia. And triple alliance includes German, Italy, and Austria Hungary. Therefore due to this alliance contributed for the formation of contradiction among the imperialist power hence influence First World War.
                         “American diplomat and historian George Kennan
                          Believed that once the 1894 alliance had been signed
                           Between France and Russia the fate of Europe was
                          Sealed as suspicions mounted between two groups
                          Russia and Germany got themselves into situation
                          Which they could not get out of without suffering
                          Further humiliation war was the only way out.[2]
Formation of alliance.this was among the causes of the First Worl.Exapmle in East Africa most  of the metropolis  nation came in the countries of East Africa in order to colonize  .due to this many of these metropolis nation came in to fighting of East Africa or scramble for east African countries so as o get raw materials in order to feed their industries in Europe.
            “it was the stiff  conflict  and contradiction
 among the imperialist nation war  was about
 the occur I Europe among  to each nation”[3]

Speculation of stock market this was another causes of First World War. Especially after First World War sold share and bought stocks in order to invest in industry and agriculture in anticipation of big profits this led to overproduction and fall of profit. Money had poured into the market but many investors were buying on 10 percent margin putting up only 10 percent of the price of a stock and borrowing the rest from brokers or banks.
                                “The possibility of making a fortune by investing
                                  Only a few thousand dollars only intensified inve
                                  Stores greed. As speculation become rampant money
                                  Flowed in discriminately into all kind. Of risky
                                   Enterprise. The stock market spir    Of control.”[4] 

Economic motives of the capitalist nations. Since the rise  and developments of the capitalist nations through the various stage in Europe led the  European  to came in Africa in on order to get potential materials for their industries in Europe.Example of the capitalist demand was   Raw materials ,Area for the investments , Market and the cheap labor ,t so these made the Europeans to inter in the East African countries .
                                    “The straggle for these demands    gave the                                      
rise of various means of  struggle  which 
struggle to fear  suspension   collision 
conflict  and eventually  world  war  one”[5]

 POLITCAL EFFECT OF THE FIRT WARD WAR IN EAST AFRICAN COUNTRIES
The following are the political effect f the first world war in the countries of  East Africa as follows
Rise of African nationalism was another effect of First World War in Africa. The world war one led to the rise of African nationalism it acted as pushing force for the African to begin demanding for their liberation and independence especially after the rise of awareness and the rise of African elites who organized the peasants to begin effective demand for their independence for example Kenyatta, Nkurumah were some African elites.
The colonial authorities by and large ignored this                               pressure from the African elites, and the expectation                                that the end of the war would bring power and prestige                                    to Africans was not realized. Early leaders of the                              nationalist movements in Africa were anxious to see                        constitutional reforms that would give educated Africans                            a greater role in determining their own affairs, and                             political parties began to emerge: the National                                      Congress of British West Africa, for example, was                            founded in 1920 to demand far-reaching political                                 reform[6]
Disposition of Germany colonies. Under German rule were taken as mandate territories by the league of nation which provided them to the winners of the war in order to prepare them for self rule. Tanganyika was given to Britain, Rwanda and Burundi were given to Belgium while south west Africa was given to the Boers south Africa.
Germany lost its African colonies, which were                                     shared out as ‘‘mandated territories’’ by the newly                             created League of Nations. The Belgians took Ruanda                         Burundi, South Africa received Namibia, the British                                     obtained Tanganyika and northern Cameroon added                                        to their Nigerian colony), the French took the rest                                              of Cameroon, and the British and French divided                                                     Togo. The expectation was that the European powers                                                              would serve only as guardians; in practice, this meant                                               little or nothing to the African population, who were                                               still treated as colonial subjects. When the League of                                                   Nations was dissolved in 1940, the status of these                                               mandated territories was left unclear. The expectation                                             that these ‘‘guardians’’ would prepare the countries                                                   for self-government was largely ignored.[7]
Also another political effect was the formation of league of nation and state mandate system. Germany lost its African colonies, which were shared out as ‘‘mandated territories’’ by the newly created League of Nations. The Belgians took over Ruanda-Urundi, South Africa received Namibia, the British obtained Tanganyika and northern Cameroon (added to their Nigerian colony), the French took the rest of Cameroon, and the British and French divided Togo. The expectation was that the European powers would serve only as guardians; in practice, this meant little or nothing to the African population, who were still treated as colonial subjects.
“When the League of Nations was dissolved in 1940,
 the status of these mandated territories was left unclear.
 The expectation that these ‘‘guardians’’ would prepare
 the countries for self-government was largely ignored”.[8]

 ECONOMIC   EFFECT  OF    THE FIRST  WORLD WAR IN EAT AFRICA
Economic stagnation of the East Africans countries .Due to this war  most of Europeans power were badly affected  during during this at was war  so that al their effort in order to revamp their economy were turned to the African countries  in term of Exploitations  so that those colonies  wer instensive  exploited  the East African country  in all aspect .
                        “Intercification of exploitation on African
                         So that  to revamp n the sick European
                         Economy  that was badly  destructed by
                        War”[9] 

Occurrence of famine  and hanger in the East African countries .After the war of the First word war  most of the east African  countries  like Tanganyika , Kenya ,and Uganda  was erupted of  by the disease  of  famine and hunger  because  most of   the man power  who are able to produce  food were  killed  in the war and  the  area for cultivation  were badly destructed during  the war  Hence the  famine and hunger occurred in east Africa.
                        “Famine and social miseries  since  anything
                        Done by n the African  was exploited  by the
                         Europea  so as  to maximize  profits[10]
Exploitation of  African economies were affected in several ways. There was increased production of agricultural and mineral commodities for the war effort, but taxes were also increased and development expenditure cut. For example, Nigeria’s expenditure increased by despite reduced revenues,  were sent to France from French West Africa. In addition, various colonies raised relief funds and local war subscriptions. The economic losses took other forms too, associated with political disturbances, wildcat revolts, the scarcity of essential commodities, abandonment of development projects, the conscription of able-bodied men, and general discontent and growing unemployment in a number of cities.
                        “After the war European nation exploited the colonies
                          Intensively so as to recover from economic problem
                          In their countries for instance African were given low
                          Wages low prices for their cash crops long working hours
                         Poor working condition and they were even forced
                            To word”[11]

 SOCIAL EFFECT OF THE  FIRST WOORLD  WAR
Depopulation. During the war  many people were killed on the sport , but most of East Africans people  who were  involving in this war were killed and African were lose  man power , and same African families were separated because of  death.
                        “many  people were killed on the war
                       Estimaded  that in one hour more than
                        3millions were killed ”[12]
Famine  and hanger  .After the war of the First word war  most of the east African  countries  like Tanganyika , Kenya ,and Uganda  was erupted of  by the disease  of  famine and hunger  because  most of   the man power  who are able to produce  food were  killed  in the war and  the  area for cultivation  were badly destructed during  the war  Hence the  famine and hunger occurred in east Africa.
                        “Famine and social miseries  since  anything
                        Done by n the African  was exploited  by the
                         Europea  so as  to maximize  profits[13]
            Rise of communicable diseases was also effect of First World War in Africa. Communicable disease includes diarrhea, plague and influenza. It is estimated that about 70,000 people died in Tanganyika. Through this led for the loss of man power in African societies due to the large number of people lost their life in different part of Africa.
CONCLUSION
These war leads large impact on Africans countries in terms of social, economic, and political, and also leads to the exploitation of African resources like minerals, ivory, and leads to the economic  stagnation up to these time Africa still depend on western countries.

REFFERENCE:-
1.      Boahern. A. A. (1985) GENERAL  HISTORY OF AFRICA. AFRICAN UNDER COLONIAL DOMINATION 1880-1935. London. Page 202.
2.      James M. McPherson (2002) AHISTORY OF AMERICAN PEOPLE. Page 850.
3.      M. E. (1987) AFRICAN AND THE FIRST WORLD WAR. New York. St. Press  Reigel. Page 122.
4.      Norman Lowe (1982) MASTERING MODERN WORD HISTORY. Published by Palgrave. Pages 12.
5.      Stephen. J. (2008) AFRICAN HISTORY 19th CENTURY TO 21th. Published the generally publishing house Ltd. Page 93.
6.      Zist Kamil (2010) ADVANCE LEVEL HISTORY PART TWO ALIVE. Page 162.