EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION

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EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION
Introduction
The study of Education Administration or simply said the leadership within a school is that which guides, leads, propels, and motivates the teachers and thereby the students as well.  
The environment of the school is critical in setting the stage for the optimal learning experience. It is initially the superintendent and principal who will determine the primary focus of the school both in terms of curriculum, environment and learning atmosphere in relation to ethnicity, race, and gender mutual-respect, autonomy and equality in the learning experience.
In the applying of a definition to the "leadership" role it must be comprehended that leadership "inherently involves core values or principles that inform the leaders' actions. Covey states that "The most effective leaders are, first models" of that called principle-centered leadership."
The initiative of training and education in local schools is one that is very important however the training and education of the administrators in education must not be slighted
Educational Management and Administration

Successful operation of an educational institution requires competent management and administration system.

Educational management and administration provide instructional leadership and manage the day-to-day activities in schools, preschools, day care centers, and colleges and universities.

They also direct the educational programs of businesses, correctional institutions, museums, and job training and community service organizations.

Education administrators set educational standards and goals and establish the policies and procedures required to achieve them.

They also supervise managers, support staff, teachers, counselors, librarians, coaches, and other employees.

They develop academic programs, monitor students educational progress, train and motivate teachers and other staff, manage career counseling and other student services, administer recordkeeping, prepare budgets, and perform many other duties. They also handle relations with parents, prospective and current students, employers, and the community. In a smaller organization such as a small day care center, one administrator may handle all these functions. In universities or large school systems, responsibilities are divided among many administrators, each with a specific function.

2.1 The Concept of Management and Administration
By the 21st century the main theories of management and administration have either been developed in the educational context or have been adapted from industrial models to meet the specific requirements of schools and colleges. Educational management and administration has progressed from being a new field dependent upon ideas developed in other settings to become an established field with its own theories and research.

Concept of Management 
The verb manage comes from the Italian maneggiare (to handle  especially tools), which in turn derives from the Latinmanus (hand). The French word management (later ménagement) influenced the development in meaning of the English word management in the 17th and 18th centuries.

Some definitions of management are

:a) Organization and coordination of the activities of an enterprise in accordance with certain policies and in achievement of clearly defined objectives. Management is often included as a factor of production along with machines, materials, and money. The basic task of a management is twofold: marketing and innovation.

Directors and managers have the power and responsibility to make decisions to manage an enterprise. As a discipline, management comprises the interlocking functions of formulating corporate policy and organizing, planning, controlling, and directing the firm's resources to achieve the policy's objectives. The size of management can range from one person in a small firm to hundreds or thousands of managers in multinational companies. In large firms the board of directors formulates the policy which is implemented by the chief executive officer. Educational management as a field of study and practice was derived from management principles first applied to industry and commerce. Theory development largely involved the application of industrial models to educational settings. As the subject became established as an academic field in its own right, its theorists and practitioners began to develop alternative models based on their observation of, and experience in, schools and colleges.

Educational Planning and Administration:
Education
Different philosophers and educationists have defined education differently.

Froebel defined education as ‘the unfoldment of what is already enfolded in the germ. It is the process by which the child makes internal external.’

For Swami Vivekananda, "education is the manifestation of the divine perfection already existing in man".

According to Mahatma Gandhi, "Education is an all round drawing out of the best in the child and man - body, mind and spirit".

However, for the purpose of educational statistics, education, according to UNESCO, “is understood to involve, organized and sustained communication designed to bring about learning”.1 Here, the words organized, sustained, communication and learning need to be explained.

1.1       Organized: means planned in a pattern or sequence with explicit or implicit aims. It involves a providing agency (person or persons or body), which sets up the learning environment and a method of teaching through which the communication is organized. The method is typically the one that is engaged in communicating or releasing knowledge and skills with a view to bringing about learning. It can also be indirect or inanimate, e.g. a piece of computer software, a film or tape, etc.

1.2       Sustained:means that the learning experience has the elements of duration and continuity. No minimum duration has been stipulated. The appropriate minima differ from course to course and program to program.

1.3 Communication: Communication is a relationship between two or more persons involving the transfer of information in the form of messages, ideas, knowledge, strategies, skills etc. Communication may be verbal or non-verbal, direct/face to face, or indirect/remote, and may involve a wide variety of channels and media.
1 ISCED 1997.UNESCO, Paris (November, 1997) 2 Concepts and Terms in Educational Planning

Definition of administration
1.  The process or activity of running a business, organization, etc.: the day-to-day administration of the company a career in arts administration(the administration) the people responsible for running a business, organization, etc.: the university administration took their demands seriously
2.  The management of public affairs; government: the inhabitants of the island voted to remain under French administration
3.  The action of dispensing, giving, or applying something: the oral administration of the antibioticthe administration of justice

The act of administering; government of public affairs; the service rendered, or duties assumed, in conducting affairs; the conducting of any office or employment; direction; management.

The executive part of government; the persons collectively who are in trusted with the execution of laws and the superintendence of public affairs; the chief magistrate and his cabinet or council; or the council, or ministry, alone, as in Great Britain.

The act of administering, or tendering something to another; dispensation; as, the administration of a medicine, of an oath, of justice, or of the sacrament.

The management and disposal, under legal authority, of the estate of an intestate, or of a testator having no competent executor.

The management of an estate of a deceased person by an executor, the strictly corresponding term execution not being in use.


PRINCIPLES OF EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT -
Management Key Concepts

l Organizations: People working together and coordinating their actions to achieve specific goals.
l Goal: A desired future condition that the organization seeks to achieve.
l Management: The process of using organizational resources to achieve the organization’s goals by...
n Planning, Organizing, Leading, and Controlling

Additional Key Concepts

l Resources are organizational assets and include:
u     People,
u     Machinery,
u     Raw materials,
u     Information, skills,
u     Financial capital.
l Managers are the people responsible for supervising the use of an organization’s resources to meet its goals.

Achieving High Performance

l Organizations must provide a good or service desired by its customers.
n David Johnson of Campbell Soup manages his firm to provide quality food products.
n Physicians, nurses and health care administrators seek to provide healing from sickness.
n McDonald’s restaurants provide burgers, fries and shakes that people want to buy.

l Measures how efficiently and effectively managers use resources to satisfy customers and achieve goals.
n Efficiency: A measure of how well resources are used to achieve a goal.
o  Usually, managers must try to minimize the input of resources to attain the same goal.
n Effectiveness: A measure of the appropriateness of the goals chosen (are these the right goals?), and the degree to which they are achieved.
o  Organizations are more effective when managers choose the correct goals and then achieve them.

Managerial Functions
l Henri Fayol was the first to describe the four managerial functions when he was the CEO of a large mining company in the later 1800’s.
l Fayol noted managers at all levels, operating in a for profit or not for profit organization, must perform each of the functions of:
o  Planning,
o  organizing,
o  leading,
o  controlling. 

Four Functions of Management
o  Planning - Choose Goals
o  Organizing - Working together
o  Leading - Monitor & measure
o  Controlling -  Coordinate


Planning
Planning is the process used by managers to identify and select appropriate goals and courses of action for an organization.
              3 steps to good planning:
              1. Which goals should be pursued?
              2. How should the goal be attained?
              3. How should resources be allocated?
n The planning function determines how effective and efficient the organization is and determines the strategy of the organization.

Organizing
l In organizing, managers create the structure of working relationships between organizational members that best allows them to work together and achieve goals.
l Managers will group people into departments according to the tasks performed.
n Managers will also lay out lines of authority and responsibility for members.
l An organizational structure is the outcome of organizing. This structure coordinates and motivates employees so that they work together to achieve goals.

Leading
l In leading, managers determine direction, state a clear vision for employees to follow, and help employees understand the role they play in attaining goals.
l Leadership involves a manager using power, influence, vision, persuasion, and communication skills.
l The outcome of the leading function is a high level of motivation and commitment from employees to the organization.
Controlling
l In controlling, managers evaluate how well the organization is achieving its goals and takes corrective action to improve performance.
l Managers will monitor individuals, departments, and the organization to determine if desired performance has been reached.
n Managers will also take action to increase performance as required.
l The outcome of the controlling function is the accurate measurement of performance and regulation of efficiency and effectiveness.
 Management Levels
l Organizations often have 3 levels of managers:
First-line Managers: responsible for day-to-day operation. They supervise the people performing the activities required to make the good or service.
Middle Managers: Supervise first-line managers. They are also responsible to find the best way to use departmental resources to achieve goals.
Top Managers: Responsible for the performance of all departments and have cross-departmental responsibility. They establish organizational goals and monitor middle managers.

 Restructuring
l Top Management have sought methods to restructure their organizations and save costs.
l Downsizing:eliminate jobs at all levels of management.
n Can lead to higher efficiency.
n Often results in low morale and customer complaints about service.

Management Trends
l Empowerment:expand the tasks and responsibilities of workers.
n Supervisors might be empowered to make some resource allocation decisions.
l Self-managed teams:give a group of employees responsibility for supervising their own actions.
n The team can monitor its members and the quality of the work performed.

Managerial Roles
l Described by Mintzberg.
n A role is a set of specific tasks a person performs because of the position they hold.
l Roles are directed inside as well as outside the organization.
l There are 3 broad role categories:
1. Interpersonal
2. Informational
3. Decisional

Interpersonal Roles
l Roles managers assume to coordinate and interact with employees and provide direction to the organization.
n Figurehead role: symbolizes the organization and what it is trying to achieve.
n Leader role: train, counsel, mentor and encourage high employee performance.
n Liaison role: link and coordinate people inside and outside the organization to help achieve goals.

Informational Roles
l Associated with the tasks needed to obtain and transmit information for management of the organization.
n Monitor role: analyzes information from both the internal and external environment.
n Disseminator role: manager transmits information to influence attitudes and behavior of employees.
n Spokesperson role: use of information to positively influence the way people in and out of the organization respond to it.

 Decisional Roles
l Associated with the methods managers use to plan strategy and utilize resources to achieve goals.
n Entrepreneur role: deciding upon new projects or programs to initiate and invest.
n Disturbance handler role: assume responsibility for handling an unexpected event or crisis.
n Resource allocator role: assign resources between functions and divisions, set budgets of lower managers.
n Negotiator role: seeks to negotiate solutions between other managers, unions, customers, or shareholders.

Managerial Skills
There are three skill sets that managers need to perform effectively.
1. Conceptual skills: the ability to analyze and diagnose a situation and find the cause and effect.
2. Human skills: the ability to understand, alter, lead, and control people’s behavior.
3. Technical skills: the job-specific knowledge required to perform a task. Common examples include marketing, accounting, and manufacturing.
All three skills are enhanced through formal training, reading, and practice.

Management Challenges
l Increasing number of global organizations.
l Building competitive advantage through superior efficiency, quality, innovation, and responsiveness.
l Increasing performance while remaining ethical managers.
l Managing an increasingly diverse work force.
l Using new technologies.

MANAGEMENT THEORIES:
Fredrick W. Taylor (1856-1915)
Performance:

1.  His theory of scientific management became prominent during the years 1856-1918.
His thoughts were necessitated by the following problems in industrial production:
-        Poor production industries
-        Poor industrial efficiency
-        Absent person in places of work
-        High costs of production
2.  The theory emphasized the following view in;
-        Hard work
-        Economic rationality
-        Individualism
-        Each man had a role to play in economic production
-        Improve productivity
3.  The main emphasis of scientific management was on;
-        Planning
-        Standardizing work and improving the human efforts at the operative level in order to maximize input with minimum inputs and costs
4.  Taylor thought that work could be analyzed scientifically and that it is managements’ responsibility to provide the specific guideline for workers performance.
5.  This led to the development of the following methods:-
(1)                    Selection of best workers suited to performing the specific tasks.
(2)                    Standardization of work methods
(3)                    Training them in the most efficient method for performing the job
6.  The assumption was that workers could be motivated by greater economic rewards which would come from increased productivity (the man v/s the rational man).
7.  In short scientific management advocated the following;-
-        The use of science instead of the rule of thumb
-        Harmony and not discord
-        Cooperation and not individualism
-        Maximum output instead of restricted output
-        Development of each worker to his prosperity
-        Make management as a science rather than an individualistic approach based upon the rule of thumb
The Human Relations Theories:-
1.  Growing out the scientific management school of thought was the human relations school of management (1930-1950s)
2.  The pioneer of these theories was Elton Mayo with his famous how thome experience.
3.  His experience was based on the principles that changing working conditions within an organization will result into a lead to high productivity.
4.  Mayo established that workers are not economically motivated robots they also respond to their co-workers. Besides the need for money people have also a need to feel that they are accepted and that and that they belong to society.
5.  Mayo and his followers believe that if management could reduce conflict in the organization, the increased harmony would increase workers satisfaction and intimately lead to increased productivity.

The Administrative Theories:
1.  This theory spanned the entire period from 1900 to date. These groups of people concentrated their studies on:-
-        Organization and structure
-        Top and middle management
-        Authority and responsibilities
The chief pioneer was Henri Fayo, he is known as the father of modern management theories.
2.  Fayo proposed 14 principles of administration which today we refer than as the functions of management;-
-        Planning
-        Organizing
-        Commanding/Directing
-        Co-coordinating
-        Controlling
3.  The 14 principles are as follows:-
a)  Division of Labour: The principle of specialization concentrates activities for more efficiency.
b) Authority and Responsibility: Authority is the right to give orders and powers to exert obedience.
c)  Discipline: Discipline must be exercised for smooth running of production as services.
d) Unity of Command: An employee should receive orders from only one superior.
e)  Unity of Direction: One head and one plan for a group of activities having the same objectives
f)   Subordination of individual interest to general interests: The interest of an employee or group should not prevail over those of the organization
g) Remuneration of personnel
h) Centralization
i)    The Scalar Chair
j)    Equity
k) Order
l)    Initiative
m)                     Stability of tenure
n) Esprit de corps – Spirit of loyalty and devotion which unites the members of a group or society
4.  In general the administrative theory concentrated on the areas of;-
-        Division of labour
-        How authority is distributed within organization
-        Line staff relationship
-        The span of control
-        Unity of command
Contributions:-
-        Pyramidal term of organizational structure
-        The scalar chain principle
-        Unity of command
-        Delegation of authority
-        Spam of control (limited)
-        Not as a discipline

F. Taylor was concerned with
-        Performance
-        Workers – operational
o  Work design
o  Work measurements
-        He regarded a worker as an economic
-        He argued that a worker will be motivated if he is highly paid
-        The rule of thumb should be abolished
-        Management should operate smoothly
 E. Mayo= was concerned with:
- Group behavior. He argues that people are not economic factor. He also argues that man is un effective concerning different economic, political, and social factor.
He maintained that e.g. people have their own behavior. He was very concerned with group behavior.
H. Fayo:- was concerned with;
1.  Structure of organization
2.  Role of managers – what should be the role of function of managers
o  To utilize the resources for achieving organization
In term of the role of managers he came with five functions
1.  Plan
2.  Organizing
3.  Co-coordinating
4.  Directing
5.  Budgeting

On Structure Organization
Fayo profound 14 principles:-
1.  Unity of command – every worker should be answerable to one superior e.g. General Managers – power is being delegated to other people
2.  Authority and Responsibility – Structures
3.  Scalar Chain – e.g.
Head teacher
Assistant Head teacher
         Teacher
    Head prefect
        Children
       An order from the head teacher should go down ward.
4.  Unity of direct for effective management there should be a limited number of people answerable to them.

Motivation:
We ought to talk on
-        Human needs
-        Psychologists make the following assumptions
1.  All human behavior has a cause. Normally the cause is due to two factors
a.   Combination of heredity
b.  The need factor of want this is inherit
When you satisfy your needs and once this needs have been satisfied then we say that s/he is motivated. After being motivated individual can perform well.
       So management should study the behavior of his workers satisfy their needs motivate so that their performance will be effective and productivity will increase.

c.   Human behavior is goal seeking
 


                              Self actualization needs
 


                                  Ego/Esteem needs    
 


Belonging/Affection needs
                                  Safety needs
                                        Physiological /basic needs food, shelter and clothing  
Maslow's hierarchy of needs

1. Biological and Physiological needs – air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc.

2. Safety needs - protection from elements, security, order, law, limits, stability, etc.

3. Belongingness and Love needs – work group, family, affection, relationships, etc.

4. Esteem needs - self-esteem, achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, managerial responsibility, etc.
-        5. Self-Actualization needs – realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences. Interest to utilize, to the fullest/highest
Examples in Use:
§  You can't motivate someone to achieve their sales target (level 4) when they're having problems with their marriage (level 3).
You can't expect someone to work as a team member (level 3) when they're having their house re-possessed (level 2).

Work And Need Satisfaction:
1.  By implication, Maslow’s’ hierarchy of needs shows that work can be made more satisfying by giving greater attention to affection  ego and self-actualization needs.
2.  A job is looked at not simply as a means of efficiency carrying out specific functions but as something which could be intrinsically satisfy to work. The reward for work can go beyond pay or bringing benefits.
3.  Using Maslow’s hierarchy management can only satisfy physiological and security needs.
5 NEEDS
METHOD OF SATISFACTION AT WORK
1.  BASIC NEEDS
Money (salary/wage) and physical working conditions
2.  SECURITY NEEDS
Physical working conditions, pension, sick pay schemes, trade union membership policy regarding security of tenure
3.  BELONGING/ AFFECTION NEEDS
Companionship of fellow workers, group norms of production, trade union membership, company social activities.
4.  ECO NEEDS/ESTEEM
Job title, possession of certain skill, possession of authority, status symbols like good car and office carpet, money etc.
5.  SELF ACTUALIZATION
Job that is satisfying for its own sake, self regulations, opportunity to be creative.

Fredrick Hertzberg
1.  An American psychologist has propounded a theory of motivation at which divided the factors of work environment into two classes.
a.   Motivators or satisfiers
b.  Hygiene factors or maintenance factors
2.  He developed this theory by analyzing the answers to two basic question:-
a.   What wants at work have resulted in a marked increase in your job satisfaction.
b.  What events at work have resulted in a marked reduction in your job satisfaction?
3.  From his analysis, Hertzberg concluded that the elements in a job which produced satisfaction were:
-        Recognition
-        Responsibilities
-        Promotion prospects
-        Work itself
He called these as motivations or satisfiers.
4.  The elements which absence or inadequacy in a job produced dissatisfaction were:-
a.   Pay
b.  Relation with other
c.   Type of supervision
d.  Company policy
e.   Physical working conditions
f.    Fringe benefits
He concluded these HYGIENE FACTORS because they made the job environment fit to occupy or maintenance factors because they tended to maintain the employee in his job
5.  He argues that the employee might leave firm because s/he disliked its working conditions or would not be to work harder or better if working conditions or working scheme were not improved.
6.  On the other hand, the absence of achievement or responsibility for example would be linked to cause an employee to leave, but if these could be increased the employee would be more motivated in work.
7.  In relation to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, motivators and maintenance factors propounded by Hertzberg can be shown in this relationship.


 


                     5    SELF ACTUALIZATION NEEDS
                                                                               MOTIVATORS                     
                4       EGO   
           3          BELONGING NEEDS

               2             SECURITY NEEDS                MAINTANANCE FACTOR
                  1                BASIC NEEDS


Theory“X” and“Y”
1.  These theories were set by McGregor. He set two alternatives which views about the attitudes and behavior of people in places of work. He drew experiences from the earlier management of Taylor, Fayo, Mayo, and Maslow.
2.  He termed them as theory Y and theory X
Theory “X”
1.  He argues that management is responsible for organizing the elements of productive enterprises which are money, materials, equipment, people, time, markets in terms of economic ends.
2.  With respect with people this is the process of directing their efforts motivating them controlling their actions, modifying their behaviors to fit the needs of the organization
3.  Without this active intervention by management, people would be passive, even resistant to organization needs. They must therefore be persuaded, rewarded, punished and controlled. Their activities must be directed. This is a management task (i.e. management consists of getting things done through other people)


4.  Behind this theory it is generally assumed that;-
(i)           The average man is by nature indolent. S/He works as little as possible.
(ii)       S/He lacks ambition, dislikes responsibilities and prefers to be led.
(iii)   S/He is intently self- centred and in different to organizational needs.
(iv)    S/He is busy by nature and resistant to change
(v)        S/He is gullible and not very bright.
Theory “Y”
1.  Assumes that management is responsible for organizing the elements of money, materials equipments, people, time and markets in the interest of economic needs.
2.  People are not by nature passive or resistant to organizational needs.
3.  The motivation, the potential for development, the capacity for assuming responsibility, the neediness to direct behavior towards organization goals are all present in people. Management doesn’t put them there. It is the responsibility of management to make it possible for people to recognize and develop these human characteristics for themselves.
4.  The essential task of management is to arrange organizational conditions and methods of operation so that people can achieve their own goals best by directing their own efforts towards organizational objectives.

Theories
       These theories can be related to the needs hierarchy in the sense that the traditional view of directing control relies on the assumption that lower needs are dominant in motivating people to perform better. It assumes that an average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if he can. He works to satisfy physiological needs primarily through the threat of punishment and must be coerced and controlled in order to assure good performance.
       Theory Y on the other hand assumes that people will exercise self correction and self-control in working towards organizational objectives.
       It assumes that individuals have potential for development will seek responsibility and will be motivated by esteem and self-actualization needs, which if met will satisfy both individual and organizational objectives.

TEAM BUILDING
People in every workplace talk about building the team, working as a team, and my team, but few understand how to create the experience of team work or how to develop an effective team.
Belonging to a team, in the broadest sense, is a result of feeling part of something larger than your-self.
It has a lot to do with your understanding of the mission or objectives of your organization.
In a team-oriented environment, you contribute to the overall success of the organization.
§  You work with fellow members of the organization to produce these results.
§  Even though you have a specific job function and you belong to a specific department, you are unified with other organization members to accomplish the overall objectives.
§  The bigger picture drives your actions; your function exists to serve the bigger picture.
You need to differentiate this overall sense of teamwork from the task of developing an effective intact team that is formed to accomplish a specific goal.
§  People confuse the two team building objectives. This is why so many team building seminars, meetings, retreats and activities are deemed failures by their participants.
§  Leaders failed to define the team they wanted to build.
§  Developing an overall sense of team work is different from building an effective, focused work team when you consider team building approaches.

 

 

 Twelve Cs for Team Building

Executives, managers and organization staff members universally explore ways to improve business results and profitability.
§  Many view team-based, horizontal, organization structures as the best design for involving all employees in creating business success.

§  No matter what you call your team-based improvement effort: continuous improvement, total quality, lean manufacturing or self-directed work teams, you are striving to improve results for customers.

§  Few organizations, however, are totally pleased with the results their team improvement efforts produce. If your team improvement efforts are not living up to your expectations, this self-diagnosing checklist may tell you why.

§  Successful team building, that creates effective, focused work teams, requires attention to each of the following.
1.  Clear Expectations:
o  Has executive leadership clearly communicated its expectations for the team performance and expected outcomes?
o  Do team members understand why the team was created?
o  Is the organization demonstrating constancy of purpose in supporting the team with resources of people, time and money?
o  Does the work of the team receive sufficient emphasis as a priority in terms of the time, discussion, attention and interest directed its way by executive leaders?

2.  Context:
o  Do team members understand why they are participating on the team?

o  Do they understand how the strategy of using teams will help the organization attain its communicated business goals?

o  Can team members define their team importance to the accomplishment of corporate goals?

o  Does the team understand where its work fits in the total context of the organizational goals, principles, vision and values?
Read more about
Team Culture and Context.
3.  Commitment:
o  Do team members want to participate on the team?

o  Do team members feel the team mission is important?

o  Are members committed to accomplishing the team mission and expected outcomes?

o  Do team members perceive their service as valuable to the organization and to their own careers?

o  Do team members anticipate recognition for their contributions?

o  Do team members expect their skills to grow and develop on the team?

o  Are team members excited and challenged by the team opportunity?



4.  Competence:
o  Does the team feel that it has the appropriate people participating? (As an example, in a process improvement, is each step of the process represented on the team?)

o  Does the team feel that its members have the knowledge, skill and capability to address the issues for which the team was formed? If not, does the team have access to the help it needs?

o  Does the team feel it has the resources, strategies and support needed to accomplish its mission?
5.  Charter:
o  Has the team taken its assigned area of responsibility and designed its own mission, vision and strategies to accomplish the mission.

o  Has the team defined and communicated its goals; its anticipated outcomes and contributions; its timelines; and how it will measure both the outcomes of its work and the process the team followed to accomplish their task?

o  Does the leadership team or other coordinating group support what the team has designed?
6.  Control:
o  Does the team have enough freedom and empowerment to feel the ownership necessary to accomplish its charter? At the same time, do team members clearly understand their boundaries?

o  How far may members go in pursuit of solutions? Are limitations (i.e. monetary and time resources) defined at the beginning of the project before the team experiences barriers and rework?

o  Is the team’s reporting relationship and accountability understood by all members of the organization?

o  Has the organization defined the team’s authority? To make recommendations? To implement its plan?

o  Is there a defined review process so both the team and the organization are consistently aligned in direction and purpose?

o  Do team members hold each other accountable for project timelines, commitments and results?

o  Does the organization have a plan to increase opportunities for self-management among organization members?


7.  Collaboration:
o  Does the team understand team and group process?

o  Do members understand the stages of group development?

o  Are team members working together effectively interpersonally?

o  Do all team members understand the roles and responsibilities of team members? team leaders? team recorders?

o  Can the team approach problem solving, process improvement, goal setting and measurement jointly?

o  Do team members cooperate to accomplish the team charter?

o  Has the team established group norms or rules of conduct in areas such as conflict resolution, consensus decision making and meeting management?

o  Is the team using an appropriate strategy to accomplish its action plan?
8.  Communication:
o  Are team members clear about the priority of their tasks?

o  Is there an established method for the teams to give feedback and receive honest performance feedback?

o  Does the organization provide important business information regularly?

o  Do the teams understand the complete context for their existence?

o  Do team members communicate clearly and honestly with each other?

o  Do team members bring diverse opinions to the table? Are necessary conflicts raised and addressed?
9.  Creative Innovation:
o  Is the organization really interested in change?


o  Does it reward people who take reasonable risks to make improvements? Or does it reward the people who fit in and maintain the status quo?

o  Does it provide the training, education, access to books and films, and field trips necessary to stimulate new thinking?



0.                   Consequences:
o  Do team members feel responsible and accountable for team achievements?

o  Are rewards and recognition supplied when teams are successful?

o  Is reasonable risk respected and encouraged in the organization?

o  Do team members fear reprisal? violent

o  Do team members spend their time finger pointing rather than resolving problems?

o  Is the organization designing reward systems that recognize both team and individual performance?

o  Is the organization planning to share gains and increased profitability with team and individual contributors?

o  Can contributors see their impact on increased organization success?
11.                   Coordination:
o  Are teams coordinated by a central leadership team that assists the groups to obtain what they need for success?

o  Have priorities and resource allocation been planned across departments?

o  Do teams understand the concept of the internal customer—the next process, anyone to whom they provide a product or a service?

o   Are cross-functional and multi-department teams common and working together effectively?

o  Is the organization developing a customer-focused process-focused orientation and moving away from traditional departmental thinking?
12.                   Cultural Change:
o  Does the organization recognize that the team-based, collaborative, empowering, enabling organizational culture of the future is different than the traditional, hierarchical organization it may currently be?

o  Is the organization planning to or in the process of changing how it rewards, recognizes, appraises, hires, develops, plans with, motivates and manages the people it employs?

o  Does the organization plan to use failures for learning and support reasonable risk?

o  Does the organization recognize that the more it can change its climate to support teams, the more it will receive in pay back from the work of the teams?

Spend time and attention on each of these twelve tips to ensure your work teams contribute most effectively to your business success.
Your team members will love you, your business will soar, and empowered people will "own" and be responsible for their work processes. Can your work life get any better than this?

 CHANGE MANAGEMENT
Change is a small word that can strike fear in the hearts of many. Yet life is full of change, especially in the business world. While those affected may not always get to decide when change happens, they can learn to manage it.
These tips will help even the most change-phobic person stay calm and in control:
10 Tips for Managing Change Effectively

1. Understand why you want or need to change. If you don’t, no-one else will… Effective communication is one of the key factors in the successful implementation of change.

2. Get the right people in place to lead the change. What skills do you need? What
attitudes are you looking for? And who has them? Use a tool like Belbin team roles to help you identify who has the attributes you are looking for.

3. Devise the vision and strategy – what needs to be done and when. If you are sponsoring or leading change it’s hard to remember that everyone does not have all the knowledge that you do. So using a simple method of identifying what needs to happen when and updating it regularly allows others to understand the impact on them.

4. Explain the reasons for the change to your people. Give people the opportunity to ask questions and to challenge what is happening – throughout the process. This helps their understanding of why things need to change. The more open the process the more trust will be built as the project proceeds.

5. Get everyone involved in how the change is implemented. They will help you identify the real impact where it matters most – at the front line. Find out who’s implemented that type of change before and give your people the opportunity to visit or see for themselves what pitfalls have been encountered and how things have changed for the better.

6. Get rid of obstacles that stand in the way of achieving your vision. For example, get rid of old systems and procedures that no longer serve a purpose. Remember that people will hang on to the familiar and do what they’ve always done if they have the opportunity to! This will dis-empower the saboteurs - people who stand in the way of progress.

7. Identify some short term wins – nothing motivates like success! Changes, like providing new PCs before the implementation of a new IT system, can help people see some benefits from the change, and at an early stage.

8. Encourage risk taking, new ideas, activities and actions. Involving people along the way helps them to understand what’s in it for them. Remember that there are lots of examples from history of many failures before a great success, so encouragement from you could lead to more benefits than you ever expected.

9. Recognise and reward people who made the wins possible. Differentiate between those who are championing the change and those who aren’t. You want to encourage the heroes rather than the saboteurs. And those who are not either (the sheep!) will follow those with the loudest voices.

10. Keep asking questions to check out the progress you are making. Talk to people involved in the project often – and not just those who are accountable for the delivery of the project. By talking to anyone affected by the project you will be demonstrating that you are interested in people’s views and discover what is really happening.
11. Don’t resist. While your gut reaction to change is often refusal, such a response is not productive. Change is inevitable, and you must learn to accept it. The quicker you do, the smoother your transition.
12. Find the positive. Even the most difficult changes can produce positive results. Don’t waste time dwelling on what you don't like. Focus instead on the potential benefits and new opportunities the changes may bring, and your spirits will remain lighter throughout the transition.
13. Create a list. You'll feel much better about change when you're able to manage its details and results. Make a list of what needs to be done to implement the change. The more prepared you are, the less change will overwhelm you.
14. Familiarize quickly. Jump headfirst into change, whether it’s new ways of doing things, new offices, or new teams. Take time up front to learn a new program, take a tour of a new office facility, or introduce yourself to a new coworker. The more quickly you are acclimated to new things, the more quickly they will become familiar to you.
Follow these tips and watch your change project succeed.

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7 Essential Skills for Managing Change

It’s a cliché,(formula) but change has always been the only constant. In recent times, the pace of change has accelerated greatly, and we all need to find ways to deal creatively with this fact of modern life. Leaders, in particular, need to face and manage change in a constructive way, but everyone who wants to be successful – in career, in relationships, in life – must learn how to see and manage change the way that successful ‘change leaders’ do. Such leaders are adaptable and creative, responding to change in three key ways.
1. People who respond well to change will have a high ‘ambiguity threshold.’ Change is inherently ambiguous, and those who deal creatively with change will have a high tolerance for uncertainty and ‘shades of grey.’
2. Skillful managers of change will have a constructive ‘internal monologue.’ They will see themselves as inherently powerful and having the ability to control elements of the situation in which they find themselves. Some circumstances cannot be changed, but the way we respond to them is always a choice, and we always have a sphere of influence, however small. By focusing on this sphere of influence, and not expending energy bemoaning the area outside it, the circle will start to expand and give us progressively more control. Solutions to problems always exist, and the ‘internal monologue’ should reflect the desire to find them and the certainty that they can be successfully implemented.
3. Those who deal well with change will have a good reservoir of emotional, physical and mental energyfrom which to draw when things get tough.
Managing Change
The above ways of dealing with change tend to be innate, with some people having a greater capacity for one or more of them than others. However, they can be learned, and the following are seven tips for improving your skills in managing change.
1. Spend time reflecting on your own core values and your mission in life. A sense of purpose is essential to success and effectiveness, and those without a clear idea of what they are doing and why they are doing it will not have the foundation to keep going in the face of change.
2. Be persistent (enduring). Success is usually more to do with tenacity that genius. Persistence is only possible when you have clarified your values and when you are able to build on the bedrock of purpose. Successful people keep going in the face of change, finding new and creative ways to achieve a positive outcome.
3. Be flexible and creative. Persistence does not mean pushing through by force. If you are unable to achieve success one way, try another, and then another. Keep looking for more creative solutions and innovative responses to problems.
4. Think outside the box. Read widely, and don’t confine yourself to your own area of ‘expertise.’ Try to see links between apparently separate and diverse elements in your life and experience.
5. Accept uncertainty and be optimistic. Life is inherently uncertain, so don’t waste your energy trying to predict the future. Of all the possible outcomes, focus on the most positive one. This is not to be a ‘Pollyanna,’ but to accept that if you respond well and work to the best of your ability; a good outcome is as likely as any other. Don’t waste your energy being negative.
6. Keep fit and healthy. Eat well, get enough sleep, and exercise regularly. Meditation can help, too. This will keep up your energy levels and allow you to keep going in tough times. Not taking care of yourself physically, mentally and spiritually is foolish and short sighted.
7. See the big picture. Change is inevitable, but if you take a bird’s-eye-view of the landscape, the change won’t be so disorientating (confusing) and you will keep perspective at all times.
It’s Not Necessary to Change. Survivals Is Not Mandatory
The above quote is by W. Edwards Deming. It's also the focus of an article by Mike Esposito in the July issue of F&I Showroom Magazine. Mike's guest editorial is on page 40 and is titled, "State Your Purpose." Here is the article in it's entirety:
Regardless of what industry you’re in, sometimes there is a divide between what’s good for a business and what’s good for the employees of that business. In retail automotive, this means what’s good for the dealer may not always be perceived as being good for the employees. Take change, for instance.
Dr. Demming understood completely that change is necessary to survive. Change can be difficult, but necessary if dealerships are going to stay competitive in this market. Even though the volume of sales has picked up this year, the Internet has made pricing so transparent that dealerships all over are being forced into price-matching wars. Continued, downward pressure on pricing means lower margins, and unfortunately for dealers it looks like this trend is here to stay. In order to be profitable in today’s world and in the future, dealers must look for ways to stay lean and improve processes. They must continue to test new technologies that can either save them money or make more money.
But often when a dealer or GM attempts to introduce a new process or technology, they are met with stone-cold resistance from employees. As a DMS provider, I often hear from dealers who would love to implement a new system, but decided not to because when the idea was presented to the dealerships’ employees, there was such an uproar that you’d think they had proposed a permanent ban on all coffee consumption within the dealership.
I don’t blame the employees, however. Implementing a new process or learning a new technology can be difficult. If a major change is being considered in your dealership, here are a few things to keep in mind:
Most employees are tuned into that old radio station WII – FM (What’s In It – For Me)
 A new process or technology may indeed add thousands of dollars per month to a dealership’s bottom line. That’s great for the dealer, but what do the employees get out of it?
Take the service manager, for example. Switching to a new DMS would definitely be a pain for him because he probably gets paid a bonus based on the amount of gross profits he generates in the service department. If a new system is implemented, it’s going to take a lot of time to learn it, which takes time away from other activities that generate profits.
Office managers are notorious for objecting to a DMS switch. Their life can be pretty miserable throughout the entire process, and is their pay changing for the better? Probably not. So where’s the incentive to change and learn a new system?
Extrapolate these examples out to everyone else in the dealership; the parts manager who is used to the inventory system, the salespeople who are used to and like their CRM, etc. No wonder there’s an uproar, and no wonder dealers throw up their hands and say they can’t change.
Yet, wouldn’t a more profitable dealership ultimately benefit all the employees too?
By Changing Nothing, Nothing Changes
 Dealers, your name is on the sign and you are the decision maker. Yet you are also part of a team. You want to do what’s best for you and your bottom line, but you don’t want to upset everyone else on the team. Is it possible to do both?
Of course, but the trick is to find and offer something unique to each team member that will help them accept the change. Tell them what is in it for them. For service managers, the extra savings or revenue could be used to purchase more lifts and hire more technicians. For parts, it could be extra cash to stock more inventories; for sales, it could be more money spent on advertising; for the office manager, it could be a bonus.
One thing’s for sure. By changing nothing, nothing changes. In today’s increasingly transparent world, dealers must be proactive in looking for ways to increase profit margins. More efficient processes and new technologies are the way to do it; but buy-in from the team is necessary to make them—and your dealership—successful.
COMMUNICATION
Communication is an art or process of delivering and transferring information (message) from the source to the receiver through a mode by using words. The mode can be oral or written. The information may contain feelings, ideas, opinions and judgments.
Types of communication
1.  Letter writing
2.  Telephoning
3.  Face to face talking
4.  Signals
5.  Radio/TV broadcasting
Ways of Communication:
1.  One way communication (Sender----------Receiver (no feedback)
2.  Two way Communication (S-------R (there is feedback)
Message flows from the sender to the receiver and vise-versa (feedback). Communication is a process because it requires stages:
1.  Encoding – arrangement of ideas in meaningful method.
2.  Transmission – after arranging ideas, you transmit them
3.  Decoding – realization of the meaning of the message
Social cultural environmental factors affecting communication.
                             i.            Different in language
                         ii.            Different in age
                     iii.            Different in culture
                      iv.            Region belief
                          v.            Medium used
                      vi.            The best time for communication
                  vii.            Physical setting
              viii.            Channel of communication
                      ix.            The attitude of the people
                          x.            The expectations of the receiver.

Understanding Factors that Affect Communication
Communication is the most important tool humans have to interact with each other. Effective communication is required to learn, succeed in business and relate well with others in personal relationships. There are many social factors and social disorders that can alter communication styles and preferences. Many of these factors affect the speaker unconsciously.
No one communication method presents a perfect solution but rather communication must match the specific needs of the survivor.
Cultural Norms
l Cultural norms play an important role in communication. Different cultures can have very different ways of communication and engage in foreign customs when regarding communication. For example, in some cultures women may not be permitted to speak unless spoken to. In Western nations, such a concept is quite absurd, but a woman who grew up with that custom who now lives in the West may still be affected by it. This woman may then be judged as shy or disinterested because she chooses not to speak.

Shyness and Anxiety Disorders

l The audience, form of communication and setting all impact the type of communication that will be delivered. People suffering from anxiety disorders, such as shyness, may be perfectly comfortable talking to close friends in their home but may find it excruciating to talk to a member of the opposite sex in a public setting such as a bar. The severity and scope of the disorder varies by individual.

Self-Esteem and Ego

l Self-esteem and ego have a lot to do with verbal communication. Someone with a low sense of self-esteem may find it difficult to voice their opinion or feel they are not worthy of speaking. Contrarily, someone with an inflated ego may find it very easy to dominate the conversation and even offend others with their dominance.

Social Norms

l Social norms also play an important role in verbal communication. The setting, context and people communicating help dictate what is deemed as appropriate conversation. For example, two lovers may find it acceptable to profess their love for each other in private but may not want to do so in public. Certain topics may be acceptable in one circle and not in another. For example, discussing health matters among a group of health care professionals may be acceptable, but that same discussion may not be acceptable at a black-tie political gala.

Types of Barriers


1.  Find physical barriers to good communication by noticing the environment around you. Physical barriers can be identified in the characteristics of the setting where communication is taking place, and can include such things as noise, light, and comfort level. Physical barriers may also include location. For example, in the work environment, a physical barrier to communication could be a closed office door or actual spatial separation caused working in different buildings.

2.  Notice verbal barriers to communication by examining the way that you speak to people. Verbal barriers include speaking in a quiet or monotone voice, using confusing language, and mumbling or not speaking clearly.
3.  Recognize body-oriented barriers to communication by making an effort to notice what is happening in your body while you communicate with others. Barriers to communication in body language include crossing arms and legs, having bad posture, fidgeting while speaking, and avoiding eye contact.
4.  Examine cultural or language-oriented barriers to communication that may be present in your relationships. Cultural barriers include age, gender, ethnicity, religion and all other cultural aspects of life that make people different from one another. Language barriers are easy to recognize because of their obviousness, but can cause a major barrier to effective communication.
5.  Find psychological barriers to communication by examining what is happening in your mind while communicating with others. Perceptions, beliefs, attitudes and cognitions are psychological factors that can affect communication. An example of this could be having a belief that you do not communicate well, therefore clouding the real communication that is taking place.
Factors include but are not limited to:
l Individual characteristics – Each survivor must be approached as an individual with unique needs. People with the same disability do not necessarily experience similar functional limitations or may not approach their disability in the same way.

l Cultural dynamics – An awareness of cultural norms is crucial for successful communication.

 l Functional limitations – According to the World Health Organization, disability is not something that a person has but, instead, something that occurs outside of the person; disability occurs in the interaction between a person, his or her functional ability, and the environment. If the proper communication modifications are addressed, the less limited the survivor will feel and the more likely successful communication will be achieved.
l Differences in learning – Learning styles vary among all people; survivors with disabilities and who are Deaf are no exception.
 l Environmental conditions
o  Noise;Everyone benefits from low background noise and short reverberation times. Noise causes stress. Background noise and excessive reverberation are especially difficult for the person with poor concentration or distractibility (like a survivor with a concussion or traumatic brain injury). Reducing risks for people with cognitive limitations also reduces the level of stress that everyone is exposed to in any environment.

o  Time; Remember, the best strategy during any communication is to honor the individual’s preferences for communication, even if preferences change or extra time is needed:

§  Survivors of violence with disabilities or who are Deaf might require more time than your "average" person due to the nature of their functional limitation and environmental barriers.
§  Allow extra time in conversations for someone whether or not the have a hearing aid or other assistive technologies.
Ø Awareness of the surrounding environment and how it may effect communication can decrease the degree to which survivors experience disabilities.


MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION
Multicultural education is more than just teaching about "heroes and holidays" (Lee et al., 1998). It goes beyond teaching tolerance of differences, and it is much deeper than studying or celebrating Black History Month in February. So, what is multicultural education? To answer the question, we must first understand the goals, definitions, and a predominant model of multicultural education (Banks, 1998). Although I am not an adult basic educator, multicultural education as it is studied, conceptualized, and practiced in K-12 and higher education is applicable to adult basic education as well. In the next sections, I review the goals of multicultural education and provide a theoretical framework for implementing multicultural education into adult basic education programs. 
Defining Multicultural Education
Banks and Banks (1995) define multicultural education:
"Multicultural education is a field of study and an emerging discipline whose major aim is to create equal educational opportunities for students from diverse racial, ethnic, social-class, and cultural groups. One of its important goals is to help all students to acquire the knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed to function effectively in a pluralistic democratic society and to interact, negotiate, and communicate with peoples from diverse groups in order to create a civic and moral community that works for the common good." (p. xi)
"Multicultural education not only draws content, concepts, paradigms, and theories from specialized interdisciplinary fields such as ethnic studies and women studies (and from history and the social and behavioral sciences), it also interrogates, challenges, and reinterprets content, concepts, and paradigms from the established disciplines. Multicultural education applies content from these fields and disciplines to pedagogy and curriculum development in educational settings. 
Consequently, we may define multicultural education as a field of study designed to increase educational equity for all students that incorporates, for this purpose, content, concepts, principles, theories, and paradigms from history, the social and behavioral sciences, and particularly from ethnic studies and women studies." (p. xii)
The primary goal of multicultural education is not merely to promote human relations, to help students feel good about themselves, or to preserve students' native languages and cultures. While these outcomes may be by-products, the primary goal of multicultural education is to promote the education and achievement of all students, particularly those who are traditionally dismissed and underserved in our education system (see box below). Sonia Nieto (1996) defines multicultural education as antiracist basic education for all students that permeates all areas of schooling, characterized by a commitment to social justice and critical approaches to learning. Furthermore, multicultural education challenges and rejects racism and other forms of discrimination in schools and society. It accepts and affirms differences in race, ethnicity, religion, language, economics, sexual orientation, gender, and other differences that students, communities, and teachers encompass. It should permeate the curriculum and instructional strategies used in schools, as well as interactions among teachers, students, and families in school and outside of it (Nieto, 1999). 
Multicultural Education
l Analyzes ways in which schools and the education system as institutions in our society work to maintain and perpetuate racism (Banks, 1997)
l Examines the history and underlying causes of racism, sexism, and other forms of institutional oppression (Banks, 1997)
l Encourages academic excellence (Nieto, 1999)
l Is for all students, not just students of color (Nieto, 1996)
l Requires the authentic examination of white privilege and the legacy of white dominance (McIntosh, 1989; Howard, 1999)
l Teaches how racism hurts not only people of color but also whites, and how it keeps us from being allies (Howard, 1999)
l Demonstrates how people have worked together in history to fight against all forms of oppression (Howard, 1999)
l Teaches about the shared aspects of racism and other forms of oppression (Gorski, 2002)
l Helps students, families, teachers, and administrators understand and relate to the histories, cultures, and languages of people different from themselves (Sleeter& Grant, 1994)
l Provides opportunities to envision a better world: a just and fair society with equitable opportunities for all 
l Inspires and empowers us to work to make those visions come true.
Cultural Competency and Your School Improvement Plan
People view the world through the lens of culture— a system of beliefs, values, customs, and behaviors that are filtered through our personalities and experiences. Culture is more than race and ethnicity; it also includes language, national origin, religion, region, community, disability, gender and age. There are both subtle and apparent cultural perspectives that influence the way all people think, interact, and make decisions.
Cultural competency in education encompasses a system of congruent behaviors, attitudes, and policies that enable teachers to work effectively in cross-cultural situations. Cultural competency includes the use of knowledge concerning individuals and groups to develop specific standards, policies, practices, and attitudes to be used in appropriate cultural settings to increase student academic performance. Additionally, being culturally competent means being able to function effectively in cultural contexts which differ from your own. Educators skilled in this area facilitate the achievement of all students through effective teaching and learning practices grounded in an awareness of cultural context and the strengths students bring with them to school.
To successfully implement the cultural competency component of the school improvement plan (SIP), achieving cultural competence must be a district- and school-wide priority. Because culture affects every aspect of education, so too must cultural competency efforts. The SIP must consider school leadership, curriculum and instruction, school environment, data-based decision making, and family and community engagement. Becoming culturally competent is a developmental and ongoingprocess4 which begins with having conversations about race and equity, reflecting on one’s own culture and beliefs, and gaining awareness of other cultures. The process also includes looking at and disaggregating data (such as achievement data and graduation rates), exploring what the data reveals and determining a plan to address any inequities within student subgroups. There is no one correct way to implement cultural competency, since it depends upon the composition and needs of the school population.

 The Legal Requirements
When developing a SIP, designated committee members must consider ways to improve the cultural competency of the school's teachers, administrators, staff, parents, and students as part of the school’s professional development program. The SIP must do the following:
1.  Identify the various subgroups that are included in the school's student population (e.g. racial, ethnic, language-minority, cultural, exceptional learning, and socioeconomic);
2.  Incorporate culturally appropriate strategies for increasing educational opportunities and educational performance for each group in the school's plan; and
3.  Recommend areas in which professional development is necessary to increase cultural competency in the school's educational environment.
Cultural competence consists of the following:
n Acknowledging the strengths and benefits that students and staff bring with them to the classroom
n Making connections between what students already know and what they are expected to learn
n Including multiple perspectives in decision-making and instruction
n Validating students’ cultural identity in classroom practices and instructional materials.
n Acknowledging students’ differences and commonalities
n Being aware of one’s own cultural identify and views and the influence those views have on classroom practices
n Engaging families in a culturally meaningful way
n  Believing that students from culturally diverse and low-income backgrounds are capable learners
The following are not components of cultural competence:
n Color-blindness or cultural neutrality
n Cultural celebrations at designated times of the year
n Making assumptions that all students from one culture operate in similar ways and have had similar experiences
n Assuming that only minority teachers are culturally competent or that white teachers are not culturally competent
Characteristics of Culturally Competent Organizations
1.  Culturally competent organizations have a defined set of values and principles and demonstrate behaviors, attitudes, policies and structures that enable them to work effectively cross-culturally;
2.  They have the capacity to value diversity, conduct self-assessment, manage the dynamics of difference, acquire and institutionalize cultural knowledge, and adapt to diversity and the cultural contexts of the communities they serve; and
3.  They “incorporate the aforementioned in all aspects of policymaking, administration, practice, and service delivery and involve consumers, key stakeholders, and communities.”
Characteristics of a Culturally Competent Teacher
1.  The teacher understands that the way students think, behave, and learn are influenced by factors such as race/ethnicity, social class, and language;
2.  The teacher affirms the views of students from diverse backgrounds;
3.  The teacher views himself or herself as responsible for and capable of bringing about educational change that will make schools more responsive to all students;
4.  The teacher understands how learners construct knowledge;
5.  The teacher knows about the lives of his or her students; and
6.  The teacher uses his or her understanding of how students’ learn and the knowledge about his or her students’ lives to connect what they already know to the new material they are expected to learn.
References:
American Journal of Business Education – January/February 2009 Volume 2, Number 1 63
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Banks, J. A., with Clegg, A. A. Jr. (1990). Teaching Strategies for the Social Studies: Inquiry, Valuing and Decision-Making. 4th ed. New York: Longman.
Banks, C. A. M. & Banks, J. A. (1995). Equity Pedagogy: An Essential Component of Multicultural Education. Theory into Practice, 34 (3), 151-158.
Banks, J. A. (1998). "Approaches to multicultural curricular reform." In Lee, E., Menkart, D., &Okazawa-Rey, M. (eds.). Beyond Heroes and Holidays: A Practical Guide to K-12 Antiracist, Multicultural Education and Staff Development. Washington, DC: Network of Educators on the Americas. 
Banks, J. A. (1997). Educating Citizens in a Multicultural Society. New York: Teachers College PressBest Practices in Change Management, Prosci, 2009.
Creating organizational transitions, McKinsey Global Survey Results, McKinsey Quarterly, July 2008.
Cross, T., Bazron, B., Dennis, K., and Isaacs, M. Towards a culturally competent system of care, Volume I. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Child Development Center, CASSP
Technical Assistance Center, 1989 (8); Preparing Culturally Responsive Teachers: Rethinking the Curriculum. Journal of Teacher Education, 53(1)
Hackman, J.R. (2002). Leading teams: Setting the stage for great performances.Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Murphy, M. Why CEOs get fired, Leadership Excellence, September, 2005. (research by LeadershipIQ)
Parker, G. (2007). Team workout: A trainer's sourcebook of 50 team-building games and activities. New York: AMACOM.

Tony Bush (2001) Leadership and Strategic Management in Education; SAGE Publications Ltd

 Richard Pettinger(2000) Mastering Management Skills
Sisk – Management and Organization