Posted by Emmanuel Mgina on 02:20 with No comments

Struggle means to make or violent effects to get free restraint or constriction. Also struggle is to exert muscular as against a material forces or mass.
Independence , refers to the process being safe from outside control.
Independence refers to the process of being capable of thinking or acting or acting for one self. Not influenced others on the things of oneself.
Independence refers to the state of not governed by a foreign power self governing. The country to be controlled it self without external influence of internal affairs.
Independence refers to free from the influence guise lance or control of another or others self-reliant an independent mind.
Independence, state of not be determined or influenced by some one or something else not contingent a decision independent of the outcome of the study.
Nationalism is a consciousness on the part of individuals or group of people regarding  their membership of a nation state either already existing or to which they espire. (By Ado Boaten)
Nationalism is the feeling of a national consciousness or awareness by the people that they are members of a nation state and desire freedom from colonial rule (by Michael Crowder)
Therefore nationalism can be defined as follows:- nationalism refers to the desire of people to rule themselves.
Nationalism can be defined as the desire for Africans to end all forms of foreign control and influence so as to be able task charge of their political social and economic affairs.
The country claimed independence on July 1, 1962 and legally changed its name from Ruanda Urundi to Burundi, Mwami Mwambutsa IV was named king, on September 18,1962 just over two months after declaring independence from Belgium joined the United Nations.


The rise of Burundi elites. These Were a Tanzanian who received colonial education as it was introduced by missionaries. They played a great role towards the struggle for independence in Burundi since were the one who organized for the demand the independence from the colonial like Belgium

“Moreover the African elites from abroad come with new ideas about the whites they emphasized co-operation with others people to work for their independence by forming political parties”[1]

Position of school in Burundi. After realizing that colonialist taught nothing but European based syllabus some African societies began their own schools. For example Burundian they were established their schools for the purpose of oppose Belgium schools which were segregate them.
“The European school were pyramid in shape which shows that the lowest stage was  for Africa and second stage for Indian and highest stage one was for European”[2]
Returning of ex-soldiers,  these people who went to fight for the war especially second world war of 1939 to 1945 came back with experience and turned the perception of blacks, since during that time whites were being worship as God or denials but returning of soldiers felt black fellows that they are real human being and are being lied and also feel pains as a living things

“…The African soldiers who fought in world war II received experience from the war[3] and found that whites were non goals or chemigoals”

Independence of other Africa countries like Ghana in 1957,  After Ghana to get independence under Kwame Nkurumah spreaded up the ideas of nationalism to the whole African continents

“The independence of Ghana in 1957 was as stimulant and a good example for other African states in their struggle for independence, for they saw that it was possible for them to get independence”[4]

Formation of Non Aligned Movement in 1955. The formation of Non- Aligned Movement led to the formation of Bandung conference, On April 1955 which was held in Indonesia and summoned by Indonesia president Sukamo, at this conference about six African states participated which were Egypt, Libya, Ethiopia, Ghana and Liberia. Bandung conference emphasized the idea of peaceful existence between nations but mostly of Africa to grand their independence through peaceful way for all colonized Africans nations.

“…The Non- Aligned Movement aimed to safeguard the sovereign of member states against their domination by the super power”[5]

“..To push for independence of the third world countries”[6]

Through Non-Aligned Movement led most African nations to achieves their independence like Ghana in also Burundi Independence of 1962 but through the ideas of peaceful co-existence brought from Bandung conference.
The rise of USA and USSR as a super power nations soon after the second world war of 1939 to 1945. The rise of Union of Soviet Socialist Republic in 1917 and United States of America brought great impacts to the decolonization of African Countries especially Burundi since socialist block of the east wanted to spars its ideas of communism and that of the west under USA wanted to spread its ideas of capitalism 

“The Soviet Union and the USA had emerged as the super powers bound to dominate the world”[7]

Formation of United Nations Organization on Uno in 1945, After the second world war of 1939 to 1945 led to the formation of UNO which  replaced League of Nation  formed in 1919 aimed at safeguarding human right and to present the occurrence of another war but failed due to its failure led formation of another organ protect human right that is UNO. The formation of UNO acted as organ to organize all Africans to be as one things and act as origin of Pan-African Nationalism to eliminate colonialism most to African countries. In the formation helped blacks of Africa to be conduct zed and united to fight for their lost right during the period of colonialism.

Competition to became head of state after independence. At the period of fighting for independence every one fight to became a leader after independence and tend to comfort ate between each others.

“Each nationalists at the eve  of independence wanted to become a president and control  resources”[8]

By competing each others to become the head of the state led it difficult to archived independence  early since everyone what to control the state and a president.
Existence of tribalism among Burundi societies since each tribe tend to resist itself and development nationalism basing on their tribe and not national scope  and become easily suppressed by colonial troops.

“Tribal political like Tutsi and Hutu rarely had mass support and were concerned with tribal rather than national issues”[9]

Every tribe within their region tends to rise the resistances based on their goals from colonialist which became very difficult to fight for the national goals since the whole country required independence of both political social and economic as well as cultural.

It became very difficult during that time to fight and regain of independence since one movement leaders afraid on intimidation and dismissal of colonialists who were front line in nationalism.
Presences of puppets leaders among Burundi themselves, Those people employed as chiefs supervisors and Clarks betrayed their natives and become on the side of colonialist and saved their interest, it became very difficult for nationalism since they are completely separate each others

“Some Africans who were employed as chiefs supervisors, clerks and interpreters were graced by the colonialist”[10]

Financial problems was an obstacle to nationalist in struggle for independence, financial problems led difficult for nationalist to reach else where in spreading ides of struggle for independence since they required money to write newspaper to spread ideas of nationalism, also to write several books concerning the suit of independence as well as magazines which will rise consciousness to admire freedom of every things in life by fighting. Nationalists during that time were almost unemployed people like farmers
“The African nationalist required funds to found political parties and run up country branches but the many of the militant nationalists originated from poverty stricken peasant families. They lacked enough money to organize and spread the ideologies of their political parties”[11]
 Poor  infrastructure along Burundi at every region, infrastructure includes roads, railways and airport, led it difficult for Burundi  nationalists to made every tribe at each region since its means of transport were connected all over the country. So as the spread the ideas of nationalism by rising up solidarity and consciousness among Burundi themselves and open their brain that were being exploited mostly in economic.

Poor  techniques of fighting was also the problems of nationalist in struggle for independence in Burundi. They applied out fashioned methods of fighting to resist colonialism like passive resistance among peasant to work in plantation which were to work in plantations which were very old methods of fighting to regain their right.

“Clearly it would have been surprising if Tanzanian’s did not change their techniques for fighting for their independence as one political failed to gain them their independence”[12]
High number of illiteracy among Burundi. Since  large number of Burundi was unable even to read and write. During  that time colonial education was mostly segregate  and more discriminative only son’s of chiefs were allowed to get that education but the majority were unable even to read and write. Through newspaper and magazine with ideas of nationalism was only for those know to read only which were very few in Burundi

Many people during the nationalism movement were illiterate and the colonialist never took the trouble to educate them”[13]

Disunity among Burundi themselves since all people on their tribe tend fight within their regions. The Burundi people was destroyed another tribe the disunity among the tribal was faced the nationalistic leader in the fighting the independence
“During the nationalism movement most Africans were divided along tribal and ethnic trends”[14]
The Burundi was colonized by German, but after first world war the League of Nation Mandated to Belgium. Belgium ruled through the Tutsi chiefs and princes. After the second world war in 1950’s the nationalism of Burundi was  advanced and in fighting for independence. The Burundi got her  independence of 1962  and form the nation under ruling of King  Mwambi.
Assa O. (2006); A HISTORY OF AFRICA (V0L-1); East Africa Education Publisher L.T.D

Curtin P (1978) AFRICAN HISTORY; Little Brown Company, Boston


Fr. J.K.Mwijage (2004)  MAJOR EVENT IN AFRICAN HISTORY; Salvatorium Publisher Morogoro

J. Illife  (1979)   A MODERN HISTORY OF TANGANYIKA; Cambridge University Press London
Kimambo I.N and J.A. Temu (1969);  A HISTORY OF TANZANIA; EAPH page 185
Leeming D  et al  (1988)  A HISTORY OF EAST AFRICA;

Maluka  and Nyangwine (2008) MAJOR EVENTS IN AFRICAN HISTORY; Nyambari Nyangwine Publisher,

[1] Fr. J.K.Mwijage (2004)  MAJOR EVENT IN AFRICAN HISTORY; Salvatorium Publisher Morogoro pg 281

[2] Hodder B.W (1978) AFRICA TODAY; Methren
[3] Fr. J.K.Mwijage (2004)  MAJOR EVENT IN AFRICAN HISTORY; Salvatorium Publisher Morogoro page 173

[4]Fr. J.K.Mwijage (2004)  MAJOR EVENT IN AFRICAN HISTORY; Salvatorium Publisher Morogoro Pg 280

[5] Assa O. (2006); A HISTORY OF AFRICA (V0L-1); East Africa Education Publisher L.T.D

[6] Assa O. (2006); A HISTORY OF AFRICA (V0L-1); East Africa Education Publisher L.T.D

[7] Assa O. (2006); A HISTORY OF AFRICA (V0L-1); East Africa Education Publisher L.T.D pg 362

[8] Fr. J.K.Mwijage (2004)  MAJOR EVENT IN AFRICAN HISTORY; Salvatorium Publisher Morogoro Pg 285
[9] Assa O. (2006); A HISTORY OF AFRICA (V0L-1); East Africa Education Publisher L.T.D pg 46
[10] Fr. J.K.Mwijage (2004)  MAJOR EVENT IN AFRICAN HISTORY; Salvatorium Publisher Morogoro Pg 285
[11] Fr. J.K.Mwijage (2004)  MAJOR EVENT IN AFRICAN HISTORY; Salvatorium Publisher Morogoro Pg 286
[12] Assa O. (2006); A HISTORY OF AFRICA (V0L-1); East Africa Education Publisher L.T.D pg 46
[13] Fr. J.K.Mwijage (2004)  MAJOR EVENT IN AFRICAN HISTORY; Salvatorium Publisher Morogoro Pg 285
[14] Fr. J.K.Mwijage (2004)  MAJOR EVENT IN AFRICAN HISTORY; Salvatorium Publisher Morogoro Pg 284