METHODS USED BY NEO-COLONIALISM TO EXPLOIT DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.(THIRD WORLD COUNTRY

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INTRODUCTION
                    Neo-colonialism refers to the indirect control or the Africa nations by their former colonial masters socially, politically and economically. Neo-colonialism started immediately after the decolonalization of African and Asia nations. The colonial adminstrators interest would not jeopardized by the transfer or power. One of the method to prepare ground for creation of puppet leaders by involving leader or national movement into colonial government. This ensured the emerging leaders were groomed to up hold the existing exploitation relation.
                            World War II, global military conflict that, in terms of lives lost and material destruction, was the most devastating war in human history. It began in 1939 as a European conflict between Germany and an Anglo-French coalition but eventually widened to include most of the nations of the world. It ended in 1945, leaving a new world order dominated by the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Since the end of WWII. More than any previous war, World War II involved the commitment of nations’ entire human and economic resources, the blurring of the distinction between combatant and noncombatant, and the expansion of the battlefield to include all of the enemy’s territory.
      The most important determinants of its outcome were industrial capacity and personnel. In the last stages of the war, two radically new weapons were introduced: the long-range rocket and the atomic bomb. In the main, however, the war was fought with the same or improved weapons of the types used in World War I (1914-1918). The greatest advances were in aircraft and tanks, when most of the formal empires were dissolved, what might be called modern economic International Monetary Fund (IMF), international economic organization whose purpose is to promote international monetary cooperation to facilitate the expansion of international trade.
                 The IMF operates as a United Nations specialized agency and is a permanent forum for consideration of issues of international payments, in which member nations are encouraged to maintain an orderly pattern of exchange rates and to avoid restrictive exchange practices. The IMF was established, along with the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, or World Bank, at the UN Monetary and Financial Conference held in 1944 at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire. The IMF began operations in 1947. Membership is open to all independent nations and included 184 countries in 2004. imperialism has come to predominate. Control is excised informally and less overly. The U.S.A, foristance exerts considerable influence over certain Third World nations as a result of its national economical financial organization such as WB and IMF.
               Neocolonialism or Neo-imperialism is the geopolitical practice of using capitalism, business globalization, and cultural imperialism to influence a country in lieu of either direct military control or indirect political control  imperialism and hegemony.

                                         “The term neo-colonialism was coined by Ghanaian
 president Kwame Nkrumah, to describe the socio-
economic and political control that can be exercised
 economically, linguistically, and culturally, whereby
promotion of the culture of the neo-colonist country
 facilitates the cultural assimilation of the colonized
people and thus opens the national economy to the
multinational corporations of the neo-colonial country”[1]
            The political science term "neo-colonialism" became popular usage in reference to the continued European economic and cultural control of African countries that had been decolonized in the aftermath of the Second World War (1939–45). Kwame Nkrumah, president of Ghana (1960–66), coined the term "neo-colonialism" in the book Neo-Colonialism, the Last Stage of Imperialism (1965).
  METHODS USED BY NEO-COLONIALISM TO EXPLOIT DEVELOPING COUNTRY
ECONOMICS METHODS.
                Neo colonialist used various method to exploit developing countries. The method used are politicial,cultural,social as well as economic method. By starting with economic they exploit developing countries as follows.
              Mass investment imperialist. Imperialist nation invested much in developing countries. they have many companies in which they exploit market area and cheap labour. to prove the above point.Horper & Row,said
                                                  counties from Europe and America have been
able to get innexpansive natural resources from
poorer countries in Asia and Latin America including
oil for power ores and minerals.”1

Another economic method is world market control European and America control the world market by fixing price of African cash crops by keeping the prices low so that Africa remain dependant to their  aid .To make Africa a damping place for cheap labour and market for Europen manufactured goods with the aim of exploiting African and Asia countries.
                                “imperialist nations have mandate to fix price of
Africa cash crops and other raw materials
in addition with conditions”

Another method under economic method is through giving loans and grant. Imperialist nation used the organs such as world Bank,IMF,IFC to give the developing  countries loans and grant  which  paid with very high interest rate and unrealistic conditions. This prove hard for Africa nation to pay  back, that result into debt burden hence underdevelopment.
 In the book of the Colombia History of the world said;Through international financial organs like IMF,WB,IBRD,EU,GATT.
 Make policies that enable them to continue to exploiting the third world countries Unequal exchange is another economic methods which used by neo colonialism to exploit developing country. The developed countries will produce cheaper high quality goods in large quantities in a shorter period of time. This is because they enjoy advantages of better technology expertise, transport, electricity among others. Something manufactured in America can take only two hours to be produced. In developing country it may take a week. This makes it difficult for poor countries to compete with the rich one.
                                        France is Cameroon first trading partner
With a commercial exchange of about 860
Million Euros in 2009. However the trading
Balance is negative for Cameroon with 597
Million Euros imports from France and only
263 million Euros of Cameroon export.”[2]
  Another economic method is through technology. The rich developed world that there is minimum technology transfer from the rich to the poor countries. For example in the case of coca cola, they will bring machinery and powder but cannot allow the developing country to access the technology know how of manufacturing soft drinks. Money for the purchase of the machinery the powder and expertise find its way back to the developed country. Neo colonialism exploit developing nation through granting loan. Through this led for the underdevelopment of poor nation like African countries. In the aid industry, there are well meaning and well intentioned motives that drive some of the operatives. History however, points at the fact that the Western incursions into Africa were also clothed in good intentions, to ‘civilize’ and help ‘preserve natives’. Having given the genuinely well intentioned individuals latitude of respect; let me go forth and define Foreign Aid as it is.
                           Foreign Aid is a bribe given to poor countries by
Rich nations to enable the latter access resources, and
Markets cheaply. It is also a bribe to poor nations to
Prevent the
migration of poor people to rich nations. It is a bribe
to poor nations meant to address
rich nation’s interests. We all know what bribes aid
do to our police force
governments the police get fatter but the crime and
traffic offense related highway
Accident rates go up under development of people. To the
Robber who bribes.”[3
Policeman to ensure he/she is not caught bribery is a good thing that promotes the
looting industry but if one were to ask the citizenry whose relatives perish on
highways and their property get looted by thugs - a future without bribery is what
They will go for.
                                    SOCIAL METHODS
Apart from economic, social they exploit as follows. through mass media. Through this world wide mass media such as BBC, CNN, VOA, DW and others making Africans to listen these in which they inspire different issue for their interest of exploiting the developing country.
Education also used by the neo-colonialist to exploit developing countries. In developing countries the curriculum controlled by imperialistic rather than  practical education. Hence we educate the Africa but with out any achievement since education insist to be employed instead or employed on self. Walter Rodney (1972) How Europe underdeveloped Africa pg 284.

“Through influence of western films, books and
education syllabus where films books and education
Syllabus where by the
.curriculum is developed
by the agent of colonialists masters that it is European based
to big extent Little is about the people concern”

    Through provision of scholarship to Africans to study abroad, in their countries and this creates a class of elites who are westernized in making a class. 

“Through Western education the African who got
scholarship adopt western culture and
ignore their homeland culture”
  Walter Rodney (1972) How Europe underdeveloped Africa pg 284.
CULTURALS  METHODS.
     Culturally they exploited as follows. Language; the Neo colonialism emphasize  the use of their language for instance English ,French,Germanic,Latin.All the issue used in business and technology which developed by themselves for their own interest. Kwame Nkrumah in his book of I speak of Freedom said.

                                     “African language is for African development
and foreign language is for foreigners  development,
so if we forced to use foreign language we forced
to develop foreigners instead of Africa”
         Western standard like culture dressing; food are  also exploitation under cultural aspects and christianity. through adopting western warring style and western food, it means we open the door for importing these things from Western hence create the market for neo colonialist and developed them instead of preserving our culture in aspect of dressing style and eating manner which develop our counries.
                                                                                   
            Destruction of African culture, this was social method which used  by neo-colonialism to destroyed African through introducing their culture.       Neo- colonialism contributed of African culture destruction this was the influenced by introduction of their culture which led African culture to destroyed. For example culture of greeting, marriage, wearing style, through this influence neo-colonialism to the developing countries.
            Through colonial education is another way which used by neo-colonialism to exploit developing country. This colonial education promotes production of raw material for European capitalist industries. Also for prepare African for civil servant. Therefore through colonial education most of African was taken by colonial power hence influenced exploitation of developing country.

                                                 POLITICAL METHODS.
                 Politically, neo-colonialism used the following approach to exploit developing countries.Through establishing relation with rulling class. the Neo colonialist used to establish good relationship  with rulling  class so as to influence their interest through them for instance treaty to conduct various activities of economic such in mines, gas which are benefit to them.

                                       “Through establishing relation with a rulling class
and create puppete Leader so that can be enfluenced
according to their interest (the imperialist).”

            Through plating and supporting puppet Leaders. The imperialist used to support the puppet leader who serves their interest. The  leader  individual benefit  with the imperialist and the countries remain in poor condition. It is common in developing countries the readers are very rich while their citizen live in poor economic standard.
            Through establishment or military base. The imperialist introduce the military basic in developing countries to safreguerd their interested.for instance USA has got 234 military base in 49 countries of Africa and Asia.
                                      “,Military base established in Africa and Asia not
aimed to keep peace in those  countries rather
than to keep the interest of imperialist countries.”
        Defense agreements. According to the official doctrine, French military interventions are
conducted only on request of the African government and within the framework of a defense agreement, reason why these agreements constitute the centre piece of French military relations with its former African colonies Martin, 1985 The defense agreements generally originate from
                                “Colonial times and represent a deal between France
and the African ruler in that they provide military
Protection in exchange for favorable access to raw
Materials. Their content is not publicly accessible Survive,
2010. In France the military decisions about Africa are the
sole decision of the president and according to the French
Constitution does not need”


Alemazung. J. A. (2010) post colonial colonialism. an analysis of international factors and actors marring african socio-economic and political development.  Page 76.
Also imperialists conducting coup d’état in  developing countries. The neo colonialist conduct coup d’état especial to those leaders who are against to their interest of exploiting there country. For those leaders who are strong to protest their Nation economic had been over thrown through coup d’état, for instance 1960,Lumumba of Zaire(DRC),1966 Kwame Nkurumah of Ghana.
            Through overthrowing communist oriented Government and putting capitalist based.To some extend communism Gorvernment were not explotative compered to capitalist so because the capitalist which conducted the neo-colonialist under USA and European power were against communism hence they overthrown and planting their puppet who will serve there interest. Herpes and Row in the book of The Colombia History of the world.

                                   “Capitalism is exploitative in nature compared to
communism which emphases  equal sharing.”
                                               
        Alemazung. J. A. (2010) post colonial colonialism. an analysis of international factors and actors marring african socio-economic and political development.  Page 76.
CONCLUSION
From neo-colonialist aimed to exploit developing countries and develop their country.This problem are still facing developing countries, since the method used to exploit developing countries are still conducted  by the imperialist nations. So the developing countries should ensure the nation Independence,sovereignity,territorial intergrity and security of their countries in their struggle against imperialism,racism and all forms  of foreign  aggression,occupation,domination,interference or hegemony as well as great power and block politics. Eventually these are the economic, political, social and culture method used by neo-colonial to exploit developing countries. And back ground of neo-colonialism and its theory of neo-colonialism.

                                         REFFERENCE:-
1.     Alemazung. J. A. (2010). post colonial colonialism. an analysis of
International factors and actors marring African socio-economic and political development.  Page 76.
2.     Diana Haag. (2011) MECHANISM OF NEO-COLONIALISM. Publishing in Barcelona. Page 22
3.      Fr. J.K.Mwijage (2004)  MAJOR EVENT IN AFRICAN HISTORY; Salvatorium Publisher Morogoro
4.     James, Shikwati. (2008) the African Executive. Page 71.
5.      Maluka  and Nyangwine (2008) MAJOR EVENTS IN AFRICAN HISTORY; Nyambari Nyangwine Publisher,




[1] Jean- Poul (2001) Colonialism and neo-colonialism. Routledge.ISBN 978.page 23



[2] Diana Haag. (2011) MECHANISM OF NEO-COLONIALISM. Publishing in Barcelona. Page 22.
[3] James, Shikwati. (2008) The African Executive. Page 71.