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Industrial revolution refers to the rapid growth of industries took place in Europe during the half of 18th century. Industrial revolution refers to the inventions and technological development which revolution the organization and techniques of production in the last half of 18th century, the industrial revolution replaced the feudal cottage domestic factories by the new factories. It witness rapid development industries in Europe where by in place of animals and manual labor new machines and energy powers used in producing goods. This revolution replaced the cottage and small-scale industries to the large industries and factories.
The industries revolution begun in 1750 in Britain. The factory system began to develop in the late century, when a series of inventions transformed the British textile industry and marked the beginning the industrial Revolution. Among the most important of these inventions were the flying shuttle patented (1733) by John Kay, spinning Jenny (1764) of James Hargreaves, the water frame for spinning (1769) of Sir Richard Arkwright, the spinning mule (1779) of Samuel Crompton and the power loom (1785) Edmund Cartwright.
These invention mechanized many of the hand processes involved in spinning and weaving, making possible to produce textiles much more quickly and cheaply. Many of the new machines were too large costly for them to be used at home, however and it became necessary to move production into factories.
The industrial revolution started in Britain in !750, because of that Britain has been referred to as the workshop of the world. It spread in France after the defeat of Napoleon in 1815 by 1850, France had developed heavy industries like iron and coal industries. In 1870 the revolution reached in Belgium the Switzerland and Germany USA and Japan begun to industrialize after 1870 while Russia was the last country to industrialize after the Bolshevik revolution of 1917.
The industrial revolution in Europe did not develop once it was gradual and a slow process improving as the time went on the early industries include, the following ship building industry, wooden industries, mining industry, iron industries soap industries, brewing industries Glass industries. As time progressed heavy industries emerged in Europe and the were made possible by the number of discoveries the discovery and the use of electricity, and the discovery and the use of oil. The discovery and the use of industrial chemical all these discoveries materialized in 1870’s increased the speed of industrialization.
STAGE OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN:-
Uring 16th and 17th centuries, many factories were created to produce such goods as paper, firearms, gunpowder, cast iron, glass items of clothing, beer and soap. Although heavy machinery operated by water power in some places, electricity was used in a few establishment, the industrial processes were generally carried on by means of hand labour and simple tools. In contrast to modern mechanized plants with assembly lines, the factories were merely large workshops where each labourer functioned independently. Nor were factories the most usual place of production; although some workers used their employers tools and worked on the premises, most manufacturing was done by workers who were supplied with raw materials, worked in their own homes, returned the finished articles and were paid their labour.
One of the major technological breakthroughs early in the Industrial revolution was the introduction of steam engines. When textiles factories first became mechanized, only water power was available to operate the machinery. The factory owner was forced to locate the establishment near a water supply, sometimes in an isolated and inconvenient area far from a labour supply.
After 1785 when a steam engine was first installed in a cotton factory, steam began to replace water as power for the new machinery. Manufacturers could build factories closer to a labour supply and to markets for the goods produced. The development of the steam locomotive and steamship in the early 19th century made it possible to ship factory-built products to distant markets more rapidly and economically, thus encouraging industrialization.
Harnessing the power of steam marked a highly significant step in technology and the introduction of the steam engine led to many new inventions in transport and industry. Stem engines were built as early as 1690, but it was not until 70 years later that James Watt arrived at the design of the modern steam engine,paving the way for the Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution was accelerated by new metallurgical developments allowingbulk production of iron and steel. This engraving of a steel factory illustrates the process developed by Sir Henry Bessemer in 1855. In order to convert molten pig iron (crude iron) into steel in the Bessemer furnace air was through it to burn away impurities.
CHARACTERISTICS OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION:-
Rapid growth of industries with modern factories. For the operatives who worked them, machines were associated during these early years of industrilazition not with ingenuity but with discipline. The machines set the pace. In a worker’s poem. “hand-loom Versus Power Loom”
Replacement of feudal cottage industries with modern factories the increasing use of machines a complement to or a substitute for human labour became almost the defining features of the new industrial revolution
Increase in Qualitative and Quantities in industrial production. It made possible what was called the division of labour, increasing productivity of industrial out put with high quality.
It led to decay of feudal villages and the rapid development of urban centers.
It was characterized by the competition in industries among European countries, which led to establishment of protectionism and abolition of free trade.
It also witnessed the emergence of free trade (non existence of trade barrier) machines were associated with invention a quality greatly praised in the last half of the 18th century.
Emergence of new working class known as proletariats and bourgeoisie the factory owners.
CAUSES OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION:-
During the Renaissance, the advance of science, contact with the New World, and the development of new trade routes to the Far East stimulated commercial activity and the demand for manufactured goods and thereby promoted industrialization. There are number of factors which contributed to the rise of industrial revolution in Europe which included the following:-
Development of internal market. In the Europe which expanded due to the population increase that accelerated he development of towns likes the Birmingham Bradford which became great trading centers in Europe, the demographic revolution created new demands in industries and provided cheap labour in factories mines plantations and in financial institution such cheap labour was very important for industrialization of Europe, thus industrial revolution in Europe towards the mid of 17thcentury.
European oversea expansion from 16th-19th the European nations like Portugal Holland Britain France and Spain expanded beyond their continent and conquered the foreign land like America and Africa and Asia that contributed to the development of science and the technology like maritime technology and military superiority. And above all they were able to accumulate raw materials slave labor and science with technology, this led to the industrial revolution.
Development of science and technology which led to the occurrence of the revolution of science and technology in Europe during 15th and 16th century textile inventions Britain in 17th the invention of iron and cool mining, discovery of steam engine in 18th which was used to pump water from