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BACKGROUND OF THE HAYA KINGDOM
The Haya areethnic linguistic group based in the district of Bukoba, Muleba and Karagwe at kagera region in northwest Tanzania East Africa in 1991 the Haya population was estimated to 1,200,000. The Haya people speaks Haya language. They are said to have settled in the Kagera region of northwest Tanzania during the time of Bantu expansion.
They are believed to be the earlier in habitant in the area the practice of metal works allowed them to create various new forms of portelly. They were organized into small of groups which loosely affiliated with one groups another and organized in the system of similar to feudalism with commoners and nobles as the main participant.
With the arrival of European Christianity the region become famous for yielding the rate cardinal Laurian Rugambwa was the cardinal and respected person in the church as the Haya are many of them are Roman Catholic believes. In the 1978 the ancestral region in which the Haya belongs was subjected to an attempt of annexation by the farmer Uganda president Idd Amin Dada whose invasion of the Kagera region failed eventually lead to the topping of government by the arm of Tanzania.
The Haya live in densest populated village and are cultivator of plantain coffee, beans, maize, miners, tin, wolfram, animal husbandry that is cattle and goats. The people grew and traded coffee long before the arrival of European and today have established tea and coffee processing plants.
The pre-dominant religion is Roman Catholic (R.C) Traditional religion, Muslim.
The Omufumu (Healer) who uses herbal and spiritual power to diagnoses and cure illness, acting as a spirit medium and use of Abanyampara.
The Haya people valued formal education earlier compared to other tribes the people of Tanzania have been linked to one of the greatest scientific breakthrough of all time. The invasion of steal archeologist Petter Schmilt discovered through a literalist combination of archeology and tradition that the Haya had been forging steel around 2000 years.
The Haya people practiced cultural activities like other tribes. For example when the hunters succeed in killing a dangerous animals or a big animal they have to praise themselves when they return home. This system is called Majigambo (ebyebugo) the traditional houses for this kingdom is Mushonge.
The Haya practice to natural cultural dances that are held during the special ceremonies like marriage, succession and political issues those dances are omutolo, amayaga, omulekule, amakondele, and akasimbo.
Thesa dances were practiced in almost all district of the Haya people like Kihanja, Karagwe, Kiziba, Misenye, Bugobo, Kiyamtwala, Ihangilo Bukore and Biharamulo.
The Haya people live in different ethnic groups in Tanzania. They are divided into several. Example cardinal Laurian Rugambwa chiefdom and Idd Amin Dada which suggests that in case political unity is not an essential part of tribal identity Haya are cultivators, growing coffee and plantais and live in densely populated village.
Exactly similar to the situation in kilimanjaro region high altitude of West of lake Victoria provided a pleasant climate for missionaries and the Catholic and protestants completed for convert by providing education .
SWAHILI COAST CITY-STATES.
HISTORY OF SWAHILI COAST CITY STATE.
The earliest Swahil culture developmed in the Tana Valley and the Lamu Islands, from indigeneous Bantu speaking population around the sixth century. By the 10th century Islam was begginibbg to take root as it was reported that Kambalu was run by Muslim. The trading opportunities saw the arrival of Arabs Persian and Indian Merchants. In “916 Al-Muhidin visited the Swahili coast or land of the Zanji”
Between 1050-1200, a wave of immigration from Persian seems to have occurred, caused a southern migration from shungwaya and Lamu to Zanzibar, Pemba Mafia and Kilwa.
Faty Swahili towns existed between Mogadishu, Pate, Mombasa, Malindi, Zanzibar and Kilwa. Each town had a mosque, very few stone structure existed. The population consisted of muslim and slaves. The well to do and old families lived in the northern part of Town while migrants and the less well to do lived in the Southern part. Some towns were non by royalty other were by an oligarch called “Waungwana”
One of the earliest examples of menumental Swahili Architrcture is the trade emporium of Husuni Kubwa, Lying west of Kilwa built about 1245. As with many other early Swahili buildings, coral was the main constructed material and the roof was constructed by attaching coral to timbers. It contained fluted conical vaults and domes, one hundred rooms with courtyards, terraces and a sunken swimming pool. The palace at Kilwa was a two story tower, in a walled enclosure. Other notable structure includes the Pillars Tombs at Malindi and Mnarani in Kenya. Originally build from coral but later from stone. Examples sindude Zanzibars stone towns with its famous carved doors, and the Great Mosque of Kilwa carved doors were a unique element in Swahili town houses, found in Zanzibar and other homes along the East African coast.
ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES (TRADE)
The Swahili and the dhow for ocean going trade in distant lands. The Swahili provided the Wsia and Mediterranean world gold, ivory furs, slaves, tortoise, shells, and rhino ceras horns for Persian rugs, chinek, percelin and other luxurious items. The Swahili had an extensive trade network this included the Ped sea to Egypt, Oman of the Arabian Peninsula, Shiraz in Persia, Gao and Cambay in India and China.
They manufactured cotton cloth, glass and shells beads for trade with the East Arican interir. Also Swahili are rural farmers and Fisherman.
Most were Muslims and language they used is Awahili.
“Swahili are an African people who an moving to the coast engaging in Maritime trade became a distinctive, urbanized, Muslim society”
THE EMPIRE OF KITARA:-
The empire of Kitara was one among the powerful dynasty in the interlacustrine region which existed in the fourteenth century until the sixteenth century when it was invaded by Luo people, who came from the present-day South Sudan and established the Kingdom of Bunyoro-Kitara. Traditions claims that the people of Kitara were toll and right skinned with bright eyes thus were fearless wonders moving where no one else would dare to go. The origin of Kitara people is uncertain. Some historians believed they were of Cushitic origin and may have come from Ethiopia.
POLITICAL ORGANIZATION OF KITARA EMPIRE:-
The empire of kitara also known as Bachwezi Bacwezi or Chwezi empire was centralized ruled by a single central authority or King. The political system was based on a special kind of stratification which rigidly divided the people into castes, each with its obligations and responsibilities. The Kitara empire was ruled by a dynasty known as the Bachwezi who were the successors of the Batembuzi dynasty as Don Leeming say
“Like the Tembuzi, the Chwezi people founded a powerful dynast in the interlacustrine region. The new empire flourished between 1350 and 1500”
The empire had royal symbols which included spears stools, drums and crown which were greatly respected as state power. However the invasion of the Luo finalized its collapse.
The people of Kitara were agriculturalists and pastoralists. They kept cattle that provided to them with meat, milk and hides. They also grew a few crops, including grains and crops. They had a skill o pottery and cloth making from the animal skins. In the books of History of Tanzania the author Kimambo say
“The hima who were pastoralists, formed the higher caste and the rulers came from their group. Below them were the Bairu who were agriculturealist and who were bound to the Hima in various ways”
They also practiced fishing activities along lake Victoria. Due to good climatic condition of the empire people were able to grow plenty of food for home consumption and surplus. Trade was also conducted with neighbouring empire under barter system like the exchange of dried fish with food stuffs.
TRADITION AND CUSTOMS.
The centralized empire of Kitara was a patrinneal empire in nature living in huts made of dried grass that were smeared with cowdung. The huts were decorated by colorful ornaments and handcrafts. Also cowhide was used to make simple clothing and sandals. The had their own traditional dances assisted by the beats from the drums. For instance when the Bachwezi left Bwera territory to a Mwine smith called Kihesi, Kihesi is said to have made a drum called Rushama from water bucket with a skin. Until recently this drum was kept at Makore a few miles from Bigo.
EDUCATION AND LANGUAGE.
As the other pre-colonial socities the kind of education among the people of Kitara was informal education which was more practically. Practical teaching was dare during times where by the youth learned by doing, feeling, hearing, seeing and tasting. Oral tradition was an important medium of education. The elders told stories and legends in the evening after the the days work. There is no fact about the linguistic connection between kitara empire and the modem day Bunyoro, Baganda, Banyankole and Batusi with any of the other dialects like that of Luo.
THE COLAPSE OF KITARA EMPIRE.
The kitara empire finally broke up during the 16th century after the Luo invasion due to Nilotic expansion. A group of people known as Biito led by a chief called Labongo who later established his rule in what was new Bunyoro-kitara Kingdom. To the south of Bunyoro, the rest of the Kitara was superseded by the development of several kingdoms located within or across the span of several present-day national boundaries, including Ankole mainly in Uganda, Karagwe and Kyamutwara in Tanzania and the kingdoms of Burundi and Rwanda
The Original and Back ground of Zanzibar Empire.
The Zanzibar protectorate as defined by the Zanzibar order in council 1924, comprised the Island of Zanzibar and Pemba and Island within the territory water there of. Zanzibar situated in 6o s latitude and separated from the main land by channel 22 miles across at the Narrowest part.
“It is the largest coralline Island on the Africa coast being 54 miles long by 24 broads (maximum measurement) and having an area of 640 squares miles”
Some 25 miles to the North-East of Zanzibar, ethwart the 5th degree of south latitude, lies the Island of Pemba.
Pemba is smaller than Zanzibar being 42 miles long by 14 broad (maximam measurement and having in area of 380 square miles.
The Acient people of Zanzibar is called ZINJ who lived during early time.
Major Zanzibar says, “It is generally accepted that the Name Zanzibar is derived from the Persian word Zangh meaning a Negro and Bar a coast this name in its widest sense signifies the Negro coast.
Zanzibar empire speake Kiswahili the language which derived by Arabs. Swahili means all same cheat or Sahili coast also there way another tribe which are Wahadimu the Wapemba and the Watumbatu.
FOUNDER OF ZANZIBAR EMPIRE
Zanzibar much founded firstly by European during the contact period between Persian Arabia and India and the coast of East Africa. For over 2000 years.
“The first European to alive were Portuguese navigators they reached at the end of 15th century and established trading station”
Therefore the first founder of Zanzibar empire were Portuguese navigators who moved to Zanzibar Island by the time.
ARTS AND BELIEVED IN ZANZIBAR.
Zanzibar, most world famous musical is Freddos mercury Zanzibar in at the heart of the distinctive Taarab, on sung poetry tradition which in African-Islamic music popular in the coasted town of Tanzania and Kenya.
Also there is arts lover with find Panting by several Zanzibar artists this including the popular Tinga-Tinga painting style, and contemporary- views of stone town. Also Zanzibar is farming for its carved chests and doors (each caving has a meaning)
COLONIAL INTRUSION IN ZANZIBAR EMPIRE
The first European country to colonize in Zanzibar was Portuguese 1571 who were to readed by navigators. At the end of 17th century Portuguese were ousted by Oman, Arabs, during this time Zanzibar became a major slave trader center.
“In 1840, the sultan said Seyyid moved his court from Muscut to Zanzibar and the Island became Arabs state”
Zanzibar was British Protectorate from 1890 until 1963 when the state gained independence from the British through revolution.
ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES IN ZANZIBAR EMPIRE.
Early trade (slave trade) that occurred in 1571 Portuguese started the slave dealers, even so until 1800’s British struggled to abolish slave Trade when seized away the Portuguese.
“Until 1896 was the local resistant crushed the Island had been a prime depot for the East Africa slave Trade, and British abolition of the traffic weakened the economy”
Another trade engaged in Zanzibar was cloves, that was used by most of European for luxuries for example for beverage.
ORIGIN / NILOTIC THEORY.
Yet another vision of ancient Meru hostery This one more academically. Inspired is convincingly posted by one/ according to Alfred M Manyara.
That the Meru came originally from the ancient Nilotic/ origin empire of Meroe )300 BC – ad 100) which is sometimes refered to as an Islands, as it was bounded by both the white and blue Niles and swamps in the “meru” and “Meroe” is centeinly tempting as is another linguistic evidence does suggest at least that the Meru were at some point in contact with Civilization from further north.
THE ELDERS OF COUNCIL
The Meru have the 17th c been governed by elected and hierarchical council of leader from the clan up to the supreme Njuri Ncheke to become a member of Njuri Ncheke is the highest social ranks to which a Meru man can aspire. The elder forming a Njiru Ncheke are carefully selected and comprise mature, composed respected and in corruptible member of community. This is necessary as their work requires great wisdom, personal displine, and knowledge of the traditional. The Njuri Ncheke are also apex of the Meru traditional judiciary system and their edicts apply across the entire community.
The function of Njuri Ncheke is to make and exuctive community laws to listen and settle disputes and to pass community knowledge and norms across the generation in their role as the custodians of traditional culture.
POLITICAL ORGANIZATION OF MERU
The Meru has lot of political influence in Kenya due to their strategies political organization. The community has not produced a president for the republic of Kenya so far, however member of the community have always held some key and strategic positions in the got of the day. In the early years of Kenya independence the Meru were in the Gikuyu-Embu-Meru Association GEMA, a political mobilization out fit during the reign of Mzee Jomo Kenyatta. Gema is no longer a strong entily but since the advent voted with Kikuyu and the Embu in all subsequent prudential dictions
The election also saw the historic election of Hon. Doiwood Nahim a Meru of Asian origin to president imenti North Constituency. Constitutional Lawyer and a first time senator (Tharaka-Nithi Country) became the majority leader in the senate.
The historical and cultural artifacts of the Meru people are preserved at the Meru Museum for merely colonial De’s office located in Meru Town. The Njuri Ncheke shrine at Nchiru is also gazette as an heritage site and placed under the care of the national museum of Kenya. The shrine is accessible and open to the public most time of the years unless there a Njiru Ncheke activities at the site.
CULTURE AND FAMILY TRADITION.
The Meru are primary agrarian their home life and culture is similar to the highlands Bantu. The Meru how maintained adherence to a family street customs code amongst the various cohorts of the population such as circumcision is still a mandatory rise of passge for boys during which time cultural education including community norms and expectation such as respect for elders and protection of children a fought in a seclusion period that may last up to a months. As a Matiko of principle, young men must ensure minimal contact with their (mollers) after initiation. Nowdays however the depth of instruction varies depending on the extent of urban influence previously a girls who would also undergo circumcision, but to practice was out lowed by Njuri ncheke in April 1956. These practice has been progressily and is being replaced by instruction based alternative rites of passage.
The Meru speakes language like Kimiira, Kikamba, Kiemba, Mbeere, Kikuyu and Kikisii (although to a lesser extent) share critical language characteristics. The Kimiira language are also not uniform across the greater Meru but comprises several mutually intergible dialects depending on the section from which the speaker originated as the whole to scholars hare demonstrated that the Kimiiru language are exhibits much older Bantu characteristics in grammar and phonetic forms than the other neighboring Bantu language.
The Meru hare had a strong educational heritage provided by to Christian missionaries. The main educational institution were started or sponsored by the Catholic, Methodist and the Presbyterian churches. The greater Meru has numerous institution of learning including primary schools, secondary schools, teacher colleges Nursing schools, technical institute and universities. One of the most prestigious private charted in Kenya (Kenya Methodist University) (KEMU) was the first to be established in areas on 2006, Two charted public University in Tharak-Nithi country and Meru Universities for science and Technological (MUST) at Nchiru Meru country have since been established, several other institution f higher learning including the University of Nairobi Egirton University, Kenyatta University of Nairobi, Co-operative University college, Nazarene University and Mount Kenya University have established their satellite campuses, in area making the greater Meru a key education have in Kenya.
THEIR FOOD ECONOMY AND ACTIVITIES.
The Meru are primary agrarian growing a variety of crops and keep livestock. The greater Meru is endowed with soil and climatic conditions that allow for the production of variety commodities including wheat, barley, potatoes, millet, sorghum and maize. High grade tea, banana abd Miraa are key xash crops. The Meru were indeed the first Africans to grow coffee in Kenya in early 1930’s upo the implementation of the Devonshire white paper of 1923. Other crops included groundnuts and a wide range of legumes, vegetable and fruits. The Meru are also keepers of livestock both for substance and commercial purpose. These include the daily and beef cattle’s, goats, sheep poultry and honey bees. Besides the area has huge potential for tourism by vintire across mount Meru National park and lewa conservancy.
The Kilwa Sultanate, centered at Kilwa (in modern day Tanzania) , whose authority at its height, stretched over the Swahili coast. It was founded in 10th century by Ali Ibn Al-Hassan Shirazi, a Persian prince of Shirazi. His Family ruled the Sultanate until the year 1277. It was replaced by the Arabs family of Abu Moaheb until 1505, when it was overthrown by a Portuguese invasion. By 1513 the Sultanate was already fragmented into smaller states, many of which became protectorates of the Sultanate of Oman.
James Hasting, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics part 24, (Kessinger Publishing 2003, pg 847)
The history of Kilwa begins around 960—1000 AD. Ali ibn AL-Hassan Shiraz was one of seven sons ruler of Shiraz, Persian his mother an Abyssinian slave. Upon his father’s death, ali was driven out of his inheritance by his brothers setting soil out of Hormuz, Ali ibn Al-Hassan His house hold and a small group of follower first made their way to Mogadishu, the main commercial city of East Africa coast. However Ali failed to get along with the city Somalia elite and was soon driven out of that city as well.
Steering down the African coast, Ali is said
“the have purchased the island of Kilwa from the local Bantu inhabitant”
According to chorine (strong 1895)
“Kilwa was originally owned by a mainland Bantu king ‘Almuli’ and connected by a small land bridge to the mainland that appeared in low tide”
The king agreed to sell it Ali ibn-Al-Hassan for as small colored cloth as could cover the circumference of the island. But when the king later changed his mind, and tried to take it back, the Persians had dug up the land bridge, and kilwa was now island.
Kilwa fortuitous position made it a much better East African trade center than Mogadishu. It quickly began to attract mamy mechants and immagrants from further north, including Persia and Arabia. In just few years, the colony big enough to establish a satellite settlement at near by Mafia island.
At the Zenith of its power in the 15th c. the kilwa Sultanate owned or claimed overlordship over the mainland cities of Malindi, Inhambane and Sofala and the island states of Mombasa, Pemba, Zanzibar, Mafia, Comoro and Mozambique now is often referred to as the “Swahili coast”
The Muslims of kilwa would often refer to themselves generally as Shirazi or Arabs and to the unconverted Bantu people of the mainland as Zanj or Khaffirs.
The major foods of Kilwa people was Grains (millet and rice) meats and other necessary supplies to feed the large city populations had to be purchased from the Bantu peoples of the interior.
There was little or no agriculture carried on within the boundaries of Sultanate.
ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES OF KILWA SULTANATE:-
The kilwa Sulatanate was almost wholly dependent on external commerce. Kilwa trader from the coast encourage the development of marked towns in the Bantu dominated highlands of what are now Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique and Zimbabwe. The Kilwan mode living was as middlemen traders, importing manufactured goods like cloth from Arabia and India which were the sapped in the highland market towns for Bantu-produced agricultural commodities (grain, meats) for their own subsistence and precious raw materials like Gold and ivory which they would export back to Asia.
The Exception was the coconut palm tree “Grown along the coast” the coconut palm was the mainstay of kilwa life in every way. Not only for fruits, but also for timber, thatching and weaving, Kilwa merchants ships from the large lateen-rigged ‘Dhowa’ that ploughed the open oceans to the small ‘Zambucs’ used for local transit were usually built from the split trunks of coconut palm wood, their sails made from coconut leaf malting and the ships held together by coconut coir
The Kilwa Sultanate conducted extensive trade with Arabia, Persia, and across through the Indian ocean to India. Kilwan ships made use of the seasonal “Monsoon wind” to sail across to India in the summer and back to africa in the winter.
THE DECLAIN AND FALL OF KILWA SULTANATE:-
In its later years, the sultans of Kilwa began falling into their ambition ministers (viziers and emirs), who played the roles of Kingmakers and de facto rulers, occasionally tried to foist themselves (or one of their member family) on the throne, in competition with the royal dynast. The most successful was probably Emir Muhammad kiwabi, who ruled kilwa for nearly two decades through several Sultans, including himself at one point.
In 1489 to 1490 Portuguese Scout Pero da Coviha, disguished as an Arabs merchants, had travelled the length of the kilwa and visited the ports of Malindi, Kilwa and Sofala and delivered his Scouting report back to Lisbon, describing the condition of Kilwa Sultanate in quite some detail. The first Portuguese ships, under Vasco da Gama, on their way to india, reached the Sultanate in 1497. Gama made contact with the Kilwa vassals of Mozambique, Mombasa and Malindi, seeking to secure their cooperation as staging posts for the Portuguese India Armadas.
The Portuguese rule was not welcome. Particularly granting was the imposition of Portuguese Merchantilists laws on the Sultanate, forbidding all but Portuguese ships to carry trade to the principal coast towns-essentially Putting many leading kilwan merchants out of business.
Therefore after Sultan Ruled kilwa Sultanate and the coming of Portuguese, the Kilwa Sultanate fall down due to various wars took place and cause the decline of the Sultanate of Kilwa. And the coming of Portuguese contributed much to the fal down of this Sultanate. Because the Portuguese coming with their own rules and make misunderstand with the kilwan therefore decline.
Abel Mutabi Mushenga (1995) AN ADVANCED APPROACH TO AFRICAN HISTORY; Kampala Uganda Grapet Traders
Don Leeming, Irene Mwaka and Asaph Kigozi ( ) HISTORY OF EAST AFRICA; Longman Publisher
Kimambo I.N (1969) HISTORY OF TANZANIA; EAPH, Nairobi
Shillington K (2005) HISTORY OF AFRICA; Revised 2nd Edition New York.
 Shillington K (2005) HISTORY OF AFRICA; Revised 2nd Edition New York.
 Don Leeming, Irene Mwaka and Asaph Kigozi ( ) HISTORY OF EAST AFRICA; Longman Publisher page 58
 Kimambo I.N (1969) HISTORY OF TANZANIA; EAPH, Nairobi page 18
 Kimambo I.N (1969) HISTORY OF TANZANIA; EAPH, Nairobi
 Abel Mutabi Mushenga (1995) AN ADVANCED APPROACH TO AFRICAN HISTORY; Kampala Uganda Grapet Traders
 Abel Mutabi Mushenga (1995) AN ADVANCED APPROACH TO AFRICAN HISTORY; Kampala Uganda Grapet Traders
 Abel Mutabi Mushenga (1995) AN ADVANCED APPROACH TO AFRICAN HISTORY; Kampala Uganda Grapet Traders