HAYA KINGDOM

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BACKGROUND OF THE HAYA KINGDOM
The Haya areethnic linguistic group based in the district of Bukoba, Muleba and Karagwe at kagera region in northwest Tanzania East Africa in 1991 the Haya population was estimated to 1,200,000. The Haya people speaks Haya language. They are said to have settled in the Kagera region of northwest Tanzania during the time of Bantu expansion.
 They are believed to be the earlier in habitant in the area the practice of metal works allowed them to create various new forms of portelly. They were organized into small of groups which loosely affiliated with one groups another and organized in the system of similar to feudalism with commoners and nobles as the main participant.

With the arrival of European Christianity the region become famous for yielding the rate cardinal Laurian Rugambwa was the cardinal and respected person in the church as the Haya are many of them are Roman Catholic believes. In the 1978 the ancestral region in which the Haya belongs was subjected to an attempt of annexation by the farmer Uganda president Idd Amin Dada whose invasion of the Kagera region failed eventually lead to the topping of government by the  arm of Tanzania.

ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES.
The Haya live in densest populated village and are cultivator of plantain coffee, beans, maize, miners, tin, wolfram, animal husbandry that is cattle and goats. The people grew and traded coffee long before the arrival of European and today have established tea and coffee processing plants.

RELEGION
The pre-dominant religion is Roman Catholic (R.C) Traditional religion, Muslim.

TRADITION  MEDICINE.
The Omufumu (Healer) who uses herbal and spiritual power to diagnoses and cure illness, acting as a spirit medium  and use of Abanyampara.

EDUCATION.
The Haya people valued formal education earlier compared  to other tribes the people of Tanzania have been linked to one of the greatest scientific breakthrough of all time. The invasion of steal archeologist Petter Schmilt discovered through a literalist combination of archeology and tradition that the Haya had been forging steel around 2000 years.

CULTURAL ACTIVITIE.
The Haya people practiced cultural activities like other tribes. For example when the hunters succeed in killing a dangerous animals or a big animal they have to praise themselves when they return home. This system is called Majigambo (ebyebugo) the traditional houses for this kingdom is Mushonge.

The Haya practice to natural cultural dances that are held during the special ceremonies like marriage, succession and political issues those dances are omutolo, amayaga, omulekule, amakondele, and akasimbo.

Thesa dances were practiced in almost all district of the Haya people like Kihanja, Karagwe, Kiziba, Misenye,  Bugobo, Kiyamtwala, Ihangilo Bukore and Biharamulo.



POLITICS.
The Haya people live in different ethnic groups in Tanzania. They are divided into several. Example cardinal Laurian Rugambwa chiefdom  and Idd Amin Dada which suggests that in case political unity is not an essential part of tribal identity Haya are cultivators, growing coffee and plantais and live in densely populated village.

Exactly similar to the situation in kilimanjaro region high altitude of West of lake Victoria provided a pleasant climate for missionaries and the Catholic and protestants completed for convert by providing education .








SWAHILI COAST CITY-STATES.
HISTORY OF SWAHILI COAST  CITY STATE.
The earliest Swahil culture developmed in the Tana Valley and the Lamu Islands, from indigeneous Bantu speaking population around the sixth century. By the 10th century Islam was begginibbg to take root as it was reported that Kambalu was run by Muslim. The trading opportunities saw the arrival of Arabs Persian and Indian Merchants. In “916 Al-Muhidin visited the Swahili coast or land of the Zanji”

Between 1050-1200, a wave of immigration from Persian seems to have occurred, caused a southern migration from shungwaya and Lamu to Zanzibar, Pemba Mafia and Kilwa.

Faty Swahili towns existed between Mogadishu, Pate, Mombasa, Malindi, Zanzibar and Kilwa. Each town had a mosque, very few stone structure existed. The population consisted of muslim and slaves. The well to do and old families lived in the northern part of Town while migrants and the less well to do lived in the Southern part. Some towns were non by royalty other were by an oligarch called “Waungwana”


HOUSING
One of the earliest examples of menumental Swahili Architrcture is the trade emporium of Husuni Kubwa, Lying west of Kilwa built about 1245. As with many other early Swahili buildings, coral was the main constructed material and the roof was constructed by attaching coral to timbers. It contained fluted conical vaults and domes, one hundred rooms with courtyards, terraces and a sunken swimming pool. The palace at Kilwa was a two story tower, in a walled enclosure. Other notable structure includes the Pillars Tombs at Malindi and Mnarani in Kenya. Originally build from coral but later from stone. Examples sindude Zanzibars stone towns with its famous carved doors, and the Great Mosque of Kilwa carved doors were a unique element in Swahili town houses, found in Zanzibar and other homes along the East African coast.

ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES (TRADE)
The Swahili and the dhow for ocean going trade in distant lands. The Swahili provided the Wsia and Mediterranean world gold, ivory furs, slaves, tortoise, shells, and rhino ceras horns for Persian rugs, chinek, percelin and other luxurious items. The Swahili had an extensive trade network this included the Ped sea to Egypt, Oman of the Arabian Peninsula, Shiraz in Persia, Gao and Cambay in India and China.
They manufactured cotton cloth, glass and shells beads for trade with the East Arican interir. Also Swahili are rural farmers and Fisherman.
CULTURE
Most were Muslims and language they used is Awahili.
“Swahili are an African people who an moving to the coast engaging in Maritime trade became a distinctive, urbanized, Muslim society”[1]










THE EMPIRE OF KITARA:-
The empire of Kitara was one among the powerful  dynasty in the interlacustrine region which  existed in the fourteenth century until the sixteenth century when it was invaded by Luo people, who came from the present-day South Sudan and established the Kingdom of Bunyoro-Kitara. Traditions claims that the people of Kitara  were toll and right skinned with bright eyes thus were fearless wonders moving where no one else would dare to go. The origin of Kitara people is uncertain. Some historians believed they were of Cushitic origin and may have come from Ethiopia.

POLITICAL ORGANIZATION OF KITARA EMPIRE:-
The empire of kitara also known as Bachwezi Bacwezi or Chwezi empire was centralized ruled by a single central authority or King. The political system was based on a special kind of stratification which rigidly divided the people into castes, each with its obligations and responsibilities. The Kitara empire was ruled by a dynasty known as the Bachwezi who were the successors of the Batembuzi dynasty as Don Leeming say


“Like the Tembuzi, the Chwezi people founded a powerful dynast in  the interlacustrine region. The new empire flourished between 1350 and 1500”[2]

The empire had royal symbols which included spears stools, drums and crown which were greatly respected as state power. However the invasion of the Luo finalized its collapse.

ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES
The people of Kitara were agriculturalists and pastoralists. They kept cattle that provided to them with meat, milk and hides. They also grew a few crops, including grains and crops. They had a skill o pottery and cloth making from the animal skins. In the books of History of Tanzania the author Kimambo say


“The hima who were pastoralists, formed the higher caste and the rulers came from their group. Below them were the Bairu who were agriculturealist and who were bound to the Hima in various ways”[3]

They also practiced fishing activities along lake Victoria. Due to good climatic condition of the empire people were able to grow plenty of food for home consumption and surplus. Trade was also conducted with neighbouring empire under barter system like the exchange of dried fish with food stuffs.

TRADITION AND CUSTOMS.
The centralized empire of Kitara was a patrinneal empire in nature living in huts made of dried grass that were smeared with cowdung. The huts were decorated by colorful ornaments and handcrafts. Also cowhide was used to make simple clothing and sandals. The had their own traditional dances assisted by the beats from the drums. For instance when the Bachwezi left Bwera territory to a Mwine smith  called Kihesi, Kihesi is said to have made a drum called Rushama from water bucket with a skin. Until recently this drum was kept at Makore a few miles from Bigo.

EDUCATION AND LANGUAGE.
As the other pre-colonial socities the kind of education among the people of Kitara was informal education which was more practically. Practical teaching was dare during times where by the youth learned by doing, feeling, hearing, seeing and tasting. Oral tradition was an important medium of education. The elders told stories and legends in the evening after the the days work. There is no fact about the linguistic connection between kitara empire and the modem day Bunyoro, Baganda, Banyankole and Batusi with any of the other dialects like that of Luo.

THE COLAPSE OF KITARA EMPIRE.
The kitara empire finally broke up during the 16th century after the Luo invasion due to Nilotic expansion. A group of people known as Biito led by a chief called Labongo who later established his rule in what was new Bunyoro-kitara Kingdom. To the south of Bunyoro, the rest of the Kitara was superseded by the development of several kingdoms located within or across the span of several present-day national boundaries, including Ankole mainly in Uganda, Karagwe and Kyamutwara in Tanzania and the kingdoms of Burundi and Rwanda
ZANZIBAR EMPIRE
The Original and Back ground of Zanzibar Empire.
The Zanzibar protectorate  as defined by the Zanzibar  order in council 1924, comprised the Island of Zanzibar and Pemba and Island within the territory water there of. Zanzibar situated in 6o s latitude  and separated from the main land by channel 22 miles across at the Narrowest part.

“It is the largest coralline Island on the Africa coast being 54 miles long by 24 broads (maximum measurement) and having an area of 640 squares miles”[4]

Some 25 miles to the North-East of Zanzibar, ethwart the 5th  degree of south latitude, lies the Island of Pemba.

Pemba is smaller than Zanzibar being 42 miles long by 14 broad  (maximam measurement and having in area of 380 square miles.

The Acient people of Zanzibar is called ZINJ who lived during early time.
Major Zanzibar says,  “It is  generally accepted that the Name Zanzibar is derived from the Persian  word Zangh meaning a Negro and Bar a coast this name in its widest sense signifies the Negro coast.
Zanzibar empire speake Kiswahili the language which derived by Arabs. Swahili means all same cheat or Sahili coast also there way another tribe which are Wahadimu the Wapemba and the Watumbatu.

FOUNDER OF ZANZIBAR EMPIRE
Zanzibar much founded firstly by European during the contact period between Persian Arabia and India and the coast of East Africa. For over 2000 years.

“The first European to alive were Portuguese navigators they reached at the end of 15th century and established trading station”[5]
Therefore the first founder of Zanzibar empire were Portuguese navigators who moved to Zanzibar Island by the time.

ARTS AND BELIEVED IN ZANZIBAR.
Zanzibar, most world famous musical is Freddos mercury Zanzibar in at the heart of the distinctive Taarab, on sung poetry tradition which in African-Islamic music popular in the coasted town of Tanzania and  Kenya.

Also there is arts lover with find Panting by several Zanzibar artists this including the popular Tinga-Tinga  painting style, and contemporary- views of stone town. Also Zanzibar is farming for its carved chests and doors (each caving has a meaning)

COLONIAL INTRUSION IN ZANZIBAR EMPIRE
The first European country to colonize in Zanzibar was Portuguese 1571 who were to readed by navigators. At  the end of 17th century Portuguese were ousted by Oman, Arabs, during this time Zanzibar became a major slave trader center.

“In 1840, the sultan said Seyyid moved his court from Muscut to Zanzibar and the Island became Arabs state”[6]

Zanzibar was British Protectorate from 1890 until 1963 when the state gained independence from the British through revolution.

ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES IN ZANZIBAR EMPIRE.
Early trade (slave trade) that occurred in 1571 Portuguese started the slave dealers,  even so until 1800’s British struggled to abolish slave Trade when seized away the Portuguese.
“Until 1896 was the local resistant  crushed the Island had been a prime depot for the East Africa slave Trade, and British abolition of the traffic weakened the economy”[7]

Another trade engaged in Zanzibar was cloves, that was used by most of European for luxuries for example for beverage.















MERU
ORIGIN / NILOTIC THEORY.
Yet another vision of ancient Meru hostery This one more academically. Inspired is convincingly posted by one/ according to Alfred M Manyara.

That the Meru came originally from the ancient Nilotic/ origin empire of Meroe )300 BC – ad 100) which is sometimes refered to as an Islands, as it was bounded by both the white and blue Niles and swamps in the “meru” and “Meroe” is centeinly tempting as is another linguistic evidence does suggest at least that the Meru were at some point in contact with Civilization from further north.

THE ELDERS OF COUNCIL
The Meru have the 17th c been governed by elected and hierarchical council of leader from the clan up to the supreme Njuri Ncheke to become a member of Njuri Ncheke is the highest social ranks to which a Meru man can aspire. The  elder forming a Njiru Ncheke are carefully selected and comprise mature, composed respected and in corruptible member of community. This is necessary as their work requires great wisdom, personal displine, and knowledge of the traditional. The Njuri Ncheke are also apex of the Meru traditional judiciary system and their edicts apply across the entire community.
The function of Njuri Ncheke is to make and exuctive community laws to listen and settle disputes and to pass community knowledge and norms across the generation in their role as the custodians of traditional culture.

POLITICAL ORGANIZATION OF MERU
The Meru has lot of political influence in Kenya due to their strategies political organization. The community has not produced a president for the republic of Kenya so far, however member of the community have always held some key and strategic positions in the got of the day. In the early years of Kenya independence the Meru were in the Gikuyu-Embu-Meru Association GEMA, a political mobilization out fit during the reign of Mzee Jomo Kenyatta. Gema is no longer a strong entily but since the advent voted with Kikuyu and the Embu in all subsequent prudential dictions
.
The election also saw the historic election of Hon. Doiwood Nahim a Meru of Asian origin to president imenti North Constituency. Constitutional Lawyer and a first time senator (Tharaka-Nithi Country) became the majority leader in the senate.



CULTURAL ARTIFACTS
Meru Museum.
The historical and cultural artifacts of the Meru people are preserved at the Meru Museum for merely colonial De’s office located in Meru Town. The Njuri Ncheke shrine at Nchiru is also gazette as an heritage site and placed under the care of the national museum of Kenya. The shrine is accessible and open to the public most time of the years unless there a Njiru Ncheke activities at the site.

CULTURE AND FAMILY TRADITION.
The Meru are primary agrarian their home life and culture is similar to the highlands Bantu. The Meru how maintained adherence to a family street customs code amongst the various cohorts of the population such as circumcision is still a mandatory rise of passge for boys during which time cultural education including community norms and expectation such as respect for elders and protection of children a fought in a seclusion period that may last up to a months. As a Matiko of principle, young men must ensure minimal contact with their (mollers) after initiation. Nowdays however the depth of instruction varies depending on the extent of urban influence previously a girls who would also undergo circumcision, but to practice was out lowed by Njuri ncheke in April 1956. These practice has been progressily and is being replaced by instruction based alternative rites of passage.
LANGUAGE SPEAKS.
The Meru speakes language like Kimiira, Kikamba, Kiemba, Mbeere, Kikuyu and Kikisii (although to a lesser extent) share critical language characteristics. The Kimiira language are also not uniform across the greater Meru but comprises several mutually intergible dialects depending on the section from  which the speaker originated as the whole to scholars hare demonstrated that the Kimiiru language are exhibits much older Bantu characteristics in grammar and phonetic forms than the other neighboring Bantu language.

THE EDUCATION
The Meru hare had a strong educational heritage provided by to Christian missionaries. The main educational institution were started or sponsored by the Catholic, Methodist and the Presbyterian churches. The greater Meru has numerous institution of learning including primary schools, secondary schools, teacher colleges Nursing schools, technical institute and universities. One of the most prestigious private charted in Kenya (Kenya Methodist University) (KEMU) was the first to be established in areas on 2006, Two charted public University in Tharak-Nithi country and Meru Universities for science and Technological (MUST) at Nchiru  Meru country have since been established, several other institution f higher  learning including the University of Nairobi Egirton University, Kenyatta University of Nairobi, Co-operative University college, Nazarene University and Mount Kenya University have established their satellite campuses, in area making the greater Meru a key education have in Kenya.

THEIR FOOD ECONOMY AND ACTIVITIES.
The Meru are primary agrarian growing a variety of crops and keep livestock. The greater Meru is endowed with soil and climatic conditions that allow for the production of variety commodities including wheat, barley, potatoes, millet, sorghum and maize. High grade tea, banana abd Miraa are key xash crops. The Meru were indeed the first Africans to grow coffee in Kenya in early 1930’s upo the implementation of the Devonshire white paper of 1923. Other crops included groundnuts and a wide range of legumes, vegetable and fruits. The Meru are also keepers of livestock both for substance and commercial purpose. These include the daily and beef cattle’s, goats, sheep poultry and honey bees. Besides the area has huge potential for tourism by vintire across mount Meru National park and lewa  conservancy.





KILWA EMPIRE
The  Kilwa  Sultanate,  centered  at  Kilwa  (in  modern  day  Tanzania) ,  whose  authority  at  its  height,  stretched  over  the  Swahili  coast.  It  was founded  in  10th  century  by  Ali  Ibn  Al-Hassan  Shirazi,  a  Persian  prince  of  Shirazi.  His  Family  ruled  the  Sultanate  until  the  year  1277.  It  was  replaced  by  the  Arabs  family  of  Abu  Moaheb  until  1505,  when  it  was  overthrown  by  a  Portuguese  invasion.  By  1513  the  Sultanate  was  already  fragmented  into  smaller  states,  many of  which  became  protectorates  of  the  Sultanate  of  Oman.

James  Hasting,  Encyclopedia  of  Religion  and  Ethics  part  24,  (Kessinger  Publishing  2003,  pg  847)

The history  of Kilwa  begins  around  960—1000  AD.  Ali  ibn  AL-Hassan  Shiraz  was  one  of  seven  sons  ruler  of  Shiraz,  Persian  his  mother  an  Abyssinian  slave.  Upon  his  father’s  death,  ali  was  driven  out  of  his  inheritance  by  his  brothers  setting  soil  out  of  Hormuz,  Ali  ibn  Al-Hassan  His  house  hold and  a  small  group  of  follower  first  made  their way  to  Mogadishu,  the  main  commercial  city  of East  Africa  coast.  However  Ali  failed  to  get  along  with  the  city  Somalia  elite  and  was  soon  driven  out  of  that  city  as  well.



Steering  down  the  African  coast,  Ali  is  said 

“the  have  purchased  the island  of  Kilwa  from  the  local  Bantu  inhabitant”


  According  to  chorine  (strong  1895)

Kilwa  was  originally  owned  by  a  mainland  Bantu  king  ‘Almuli’  and  connected  by  a  small  land  bridge  to  the  mainland  that  appeared  in  low  tide”[8]

The  king  agreed  to  sell  it  Ali  ibn-Al-Hassan  for  as  small  colored  cloth  as  could  cover  the circumference  of  the island.  But  when  the  king  later  changed  his  mind,  and  tried  to  take  it  back,  the  Persians  had  dug  up  the  land  bridge,  and  kilwa  was  now  island.

Kilwa  fortuitous  position  made  it  a  much  better  East  African  trade  center  than  Mogadishu.  It  quickly  began  to  attract  mamy  mechants  and  immagrants  from  further  north,  including  Persia  and  Arabia.  In  just  few  years,  the  colony  big  enough  to  establish a  satellite  settlement  at  near  by  Mafia  island.

At  the  Zenith  of  its  power  in  the  15th  c.  the  kilwa  Sultanate  owned  or  claimed  overlordship  over  the  mainland  cities  of  Malindi,  Inhambane  and  Sofala  and  the  island  states  of  Mombasa,  Pemba,  Zanzibar,  Mafia,  Comoro  and  Mozambique  now  is often  referred  to  as  the  “Swahili  coast”

The  Muslims  of  kilwa  would  often refer  to  themselves  generally  as  Shirazi  or  Arabs  and  to  the  unconverted Bantu  people  of  the  mainland  as  Zanj  or  Khaffirs.

The  major  foods  of  Kilwa  people  was  Grains  (millet  and  rice)  meats  and  other  necessary  supplies  to  feed  the  large  city  populations  had  to  be  purchased  from  the  Bantu  peoples  of  the interior.

There  was  little  or  no  agriculture  carried  on  within  the  boundaries  of  Sultanate.




 ECONOMIC  ACTIVITIES  OF  KILWA  SULTANATE:-
The  kilwa  Sulatanate  was  almost  wholly  dependent  on  external  commerce.  Kilwa  trader  from  the  coast  encourage  the  development  of  marked  towns  in  the  Bantu  dominated  highlands  of  what  are  now  Kenya,  Tanzania,  Mozambique  and  Zimbabwe.  The  Kilwan  mode  living  was  as  middlemen  traders,  importing  manufactured  goods  like  cloth  from  Arabia  and  India  which  were  the  sapped  in  the  highland  market  towns  for  Bantu-produced  agricultural  commodities  (grain,  meats)  for  their  own  subsistence  and  precious  raw  materials  like  Gold  and  ivory  which  they  would  export  back  to  Asia.


The  Exception  was  the  coconut  palm  tree  “Grown  along  the  coast”  the  coconut  palm  was the  mainstay  of kilwa  life  in  every  way.  Not  only  for  fruits,  but also  for  timber,  thatching  and weaving,  Kilwa  merchants  ships  from  the  large  lateen-rigged   ‘Dhowa’  that  ploughed  the  open  oceans  to  the  small  ‘Zambucs’  used  for  local  transit  were  usually  built  from  the  split  trunks  of  coconut  palm  wood,  their  sails  made  from  coconut  leaf  malting  and  the  ships held  together  by  coconut  coir

The  Kilwa  Sultanate  conducted  extensive  trade  with  Arabia,  Persia,  and  across  through  the  Indian  ocean  to  India.  Kilwan  ships made use of  the  seasonal  “Monsoon  wind”   to  sail  across  to  India  in  the  summer  and  back  to  africa  in the  winter.

THE  DECLAIN  AND  FALL  OF  KILWA  SULTANATE:-
In  its later  years,  the  sultans  of Kilwa  began  falling  into  their  ambition  ministers  (viziers  and  emirs),  who  played  the  roles  of  Kingmakers  and  de  facto  rulers,  occasionally  tried  to  foist  themselves  (or  one  of  their  member  family)  on  the  throne,  in  competition  with  the  royal  dynast.  The  most  successful  was  probably  Emir  Muhammad  kiwabi,  who  ruled  kilwa  for  nearly  two  decades  through  several  Sultans,  including  himself  at  one  point.

In  1489  to 1490  Portuguese  Scout  Pero  da  Coviha,  disguished  as  an  Arabs  merchants,  had  travelled  the  length  of  the kilwa  and  visited  the  ports  of  Malindi,  Kilwa  and  Sofala  and  delivered  his  Scouting  report  back  to  Lisbon,  describing  the  condition  of  Kilwa  Sultanate  in quite  some  detail.  The  first  Portuguese  ships,  under  Vasco  da  Gama,  on  their  way  to india,  reached  the  Sultanate  in  1497.  Gama  made  contact  with  the  Kilwa  vassals  of  Mozambique,  Mombasa  and  Malindi,  seeking  to  secure  their  cooperation  as  staging  posts  for  the  Portuguese  India  Armadas.

The  Portuguese  rule  was  not  welcome.  Particularly  granting  was  the  imposition  of  Portuguese  Merchantilists  laws  on  the  Sultanate,  forbidding  all  but  Portuguese  ships  to  carry  trade  to  the  principal  coast  towns-essentially  Putting  many  leading  kilwan  merchants  out  of  business.

Therefore  after  Sultan  Ruled  kilwa  Sultanate  and  the  coming  of  Portuguese,  the Kilwa  Sultanate  fall  down  due  to  various  wars  took  place  and  cause  the  decline  of  the  Sultanate  of  Kilwa.  And  the  coming  of  Portuguese  contributed  much  to the  fal  down  of  this  Sultanate.  Because  the  Portuguese  coming  with  their  own  rules  and  make  misunderstand  with  the  kilwan  therefore  decline.










BIBLIOGRAPHY:-
Abel Mutabi Mushenga (1995)  AN ADVANCED APPROACH TO AFRICAN HISTORY; Kampala Uganda Grapet Traders
Don Leeming, Irene Mwaka and Asaph Kigozi (    )  HISTORY OF EAST AFRICA; Longman Publisher
Kimambo I.N (1969) HISTORY OF TANZANIA; EAPH, Nairobi
Shillington K (2005)  HISTORY OF AFRICA; Revised 2nd Edition New York.



[1] Shillington K (2005)  HISTORY OF AFRICA; Revised 2nd Edition New York.
[2] Don Leeming, Irene Mwaka and Asaph Kigozi (    )  HISTORY OF EAST AFRICA; Longman Publisher page 58
[3] Kimambo I.N (1969) HISTORY OF TANZANIA; EAPH, Nairobi page 18
[4] Kimambo I.N (1969) HISTORY OF TANZANIA; EAPH, Nairobi
[5] Abel Mutabi Mushenga (1995)  AN ADVANCED APPROACH TO AFRICAN HISTORY; Kampala Uganda Grapet Traders
[6] Ibid
[7] Abel Mutabi Mushenga (1995)  AN ADVANCED APPROACH TO AFRICAN HISTORY; Kampala Uganda Grapet Traders
[8] Abel Mutabi Mushenga (1995)  AN ADVANCED APPROACH TO AFRICAN HISTORY; Kampala Uganda Grapet Traders