CONGRESS IN EUROPE

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By Rashid Salum Namtole
Congress is the formal meeting of the representative of different nations, constituent states independent organization such as trade unions or groups. A formal meeting of representatives, for example form different nations or scientific organization to discuss ideas make plans or solve problems.

BACKGROUND OF CONGRESS FROM 1818 TO 1822 IN EUROPE-
It founding powers were Austria Prussia, the Russian Empire and the United Kingdom. These nations were the members of the Quadruple Alliance who had collective defeated Napoleon and has first French empire. In time France was established as a fifth member of the concert. At  the first the leading personalities of the system were British foreign secretary lord castlereagh, Austrian chancellor Klemens Von Metternich and Russian Czar Alexander I Charles Maurice die Talleyrand-Perigord of France was largely responsible for quickly returning that country to its places alongside the other major powers in international diplomacy.

The age of the concert is sometimes  known as the age of Metternich, due to the influence of Austrian chancellors conservation and the dominance of Austruia within he German confederation or as the European Restoration because of the reactionary efforts of the congress of Vienna to restore Europe to its state before the French Revolution.

The rise of nationalism, the unification of German and the Risorgimento in Italy, and the Eastern Question were among the factors which brought an end of the concerts affectiveness. Among the meeting of the Great powers during this period were Axi-ia-chapelle (1818)  Carlsbad (1819) Troppau (1820) Loubach (1821) Verona (1822) London (1832) Berlin (1878)

“The concert of European had no written rulers or permanent institutions but at times of crisis any of the cloud propose a conference”[1]

 DIFFERENT VIEWS OF THE EUROPEAN POWERS IN THE CONGRESS DURING 1818-1822
AIX-LA-CHAPELLE
Russian and Prussia proposed an alliance  against revolutions to keep  status-quo Br disagreed and refused to hold regular meetings unless Vienna settlement was violated.

TROPPAU  (1820)
Aust Pru Rudrew up Troppau Protocol (to suppress revolution) Br and France did not approve (reject intervention)

LAIBACH AND VERONA (1821-1822)
Br did not agree to interview in Spanish revolt.

 AIX-LA-CHAPELLE
Russian and Prussia proposed an alliance  against revolutions to keep  status-quo Br disagreed and refused to hold regular meetings unless Vienna settlement was violated.
Aix-la- Chapelle congress was a congress which held in 1818 this was the primary meeting of four European powers such as Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia. The main reason for the withdraw of the army of occupation from France and the nature of the modification to be introduced in consequence into the relation of the four  toward each other.
“Held in the autumn of 1818, was primary a meeting of the four alliance powers Britain Austria Prussia and Russia to decide the question of the withdraw of the army of occupation from France and the nature of the modification to be introduced in consequence into the relations of the four towards each other and collectively towards French”[2]

Apart from that the following were the positive impacts of the Aix-La-Chapelle in 1818, which was the result of the congress.

The France had obeyed to pay the amount of war expenses before Aix-La-Chapelle had the war which caused by France. Due to that factors the congress agreed that the France should pay the expenses of the war and the France agreed to pay the expenses.

“France had paid the amount of war wxpenses and the government of Frances obeyed the decisions of the Vienna congress”[3]

Also they decided that the occupation army of the allied power should be withdraw. In the congress decided the question of the withdraw of the army of occupation from France. The congress agreed to withdraw the army occupation of France. And the result France obeyed withdraw the army occupation
Mot only that but also the France war included in the alliances. In that congress the France included in the alliance and the name of the quadruple alliance was changed and called the quintuple alliance.

“France was included in the alliance and thus the name of quadruple alliance changed and it was called the quintuple Alliance”[4]

This congress held in the autumn of 1818, was primary a meeting of the four allied powers Britain Russia Prussia and Austria. It was a meeting to decide the question of the withdraw of the army of occupation from France and the nature of modification to be introduced in consequence into relation of the four Powers towards each other alternatively toward France.

ITS CONAEQUENCE:-
It awakened for the first time the apprehensions of English statement as to the real character of the principle underlying the European concert. Alexander proposed that a Declaration should be signed by all the powers granteering the existing territorial settlement and the rights of soverign princes. This would facilitate the systematic suppression of free institution stifling the development of Europe in the fetters of hide-bound conservation. (Book Europe in the 19th cand   20thc. author E SLipson, Allied Publisher, 1960 page 219)

The allies decided  that the occupation army could be withdrawn from France and France fully readmitted to her previous international status by being allowed to join the alliance (page 220, Book of International society and making of international order, transaction publisher, 2005. Author G. Auth


CONGRESS OF TROPPAU  (1820)
Aust Pru Rudrew up Troppau Protocol (to suppress revolution) Br and France did not approve (reject intervention)
Congress of Troppau was a conference of the quintuple Alliance to discuss means of the suppressing the revolution in Naples of July 1820, and at which the Troppau protocol was signed on 19th November 1820. The congress met on October 20, 1820in Troppau modern Opova in Austrian Silesia at the behest of Tsar Alexander I of Russia.

“Congress of Troppau (October-December 1820) meeting of the Holy alliance powers, held at Troppau in Silesia (modern Opava Czech Public), at which the Trappau protocol , a declaration of intention to take collective action against Revolution, was signed (Nov 19, 1820)”[5]

The congress attended by Francis I of Austrian, Alexander I of Russia and Fredrick William III of Prussia, their foreign ministers, and observers from Britain and France. The congress decided to intervene in Naples against the democratic revolution there July 1820.

The congress held in order to discuss about the means of suppressing the revolution which occurred in Naples of July 1820.

The impacts of the congress was generally asserting the states having undergone, that revolutions would be excluded from the European alliance, that the allied power would not recognize illegal changes in mush state and that the power would use force there to the alliance

Britain and France refused to accept the protocol and demonstration the decision  between the Eastern and Western member of the alliance. The congress wanted to decide the member of the alliance between western and Eastern Europe but the Britain and France refused it.

“Britain and France However refused to accept the protocol, demonstrating the devision between the eastern and western member of the quintuple Alliance and seriously weakening”[6]

The congress met at Troppau in 1820. It was summoned on account of the Neapolitan revolt. The congress power discussed the general principle that should guide their action if revolution broke out in member countries or country and also the duties of other members. All these principles were embodied in the Troppau Protocol which was signed by the three Eastern power (Prussia, Austria and Russia)
ITS OUTCOMES
Formation of constitution in Spanish, in July 1820 a similar uprising occurred in Naples, where another Bourbon Ferdinand I, was forced to introduce the very liberal Spanish constitution formulated in 1822 (Book; of Europe since 1715-1919; authors, Shirley Elson Roessler, RenyMidos, Rowman & Littlefield Publisher, 2003 page 1822)

CONGRESS OF LAIBACH (1821-1822)
Br did not agree to interview in Spanish revolt. The congress of Laibach was congress of the allied sovereigns their representative, held in 1821 as part of the concert of Europe which was decided attempt of the great powers to settle international problems after the Napoleonic wars through discussion and collective weight

“Congress of Laibach (Jan 26-may 12, 1821) meeting the Holy Alliances powers (all European inters except those Britain the Ottoman E,pire, and the papacy) at Laibach (now Ljubljana, Slovenia) that set the conditions for Austrian intervention in and occupation of the Two sicilus in action against the Nepolitan revolution (July 1821)”[7]

IMPACTS OF LAIBACH CONGRESS OF 1820
The congress agreed to abolish the Neapolitan constitution, and the Austrian army to restore the absolutist monarchy. But the agreement protested by British and French, they encouraged unsuccessful resistance to the Neapolitans.

“The British and French Protested the decision, there by encouraging unsuccessful resistance among the Neapolitans. A similar revolt in piedmont was put down by Austrians at Novara on April 8, 1821”[8]


The Austria got opportunity to stop the revolt which happened in piedmont on April 8, 1821 which helped  to bring peace and order within the state.

CONGRESS OF VERONA
Congress of Verona (October 20 to December  19, 1822) the last of the meetings held by the European powers in accordance with the term of the quadruple alliance between Russia Prussia, Austrian and Great Britain. Held at Verona the congress was also Manifestation of the Holy Alliance (Austria, Russia, Prussia)

The congress was held mainly to discuss the revolutionary situation in Spain.  Cowened because the French leering Louis XVIII wanted in allies concert to intervene in Spain to overthrown the constitutional regime established there in 1820
The congress of Verona met at Verona Italy on October 20, 1822 as part of the series of the international congress of Vienna congress, which had instituted the concert of Europe at the close of Napoleonic wars. The main problem discussed was the revolution in Spain against Ferdinand VII

 ITS OUTCOMES
Britain withdraw from the concert of Europe, thereby driving the final nail into the coffin of the congress system. (Book History of Modern Europe 1789-220; Author B.V.Rao, Sterling Publishers Put Ltd 2005 page 58)

IMPACT OF VERONA CONGRESS
The congress agreed to support France if it should be attacked  by Spain . because there were contradiction between the two state the France feared to be conquered by Spain the congress agreed to support the French.

“The congress agreed to support France if it should be attacked by Spain and Authorized a French expedition into Spain 1823”[9]


 CONCLUSION:-
It is not difficult to trace the cause which brought about the failure of the concert of Europe. It may be said that the intention of the powers joining the quadruple Alliance was to create a front against the old enemy, France. They were afraid that France may rise once again and threaters the peace of Europe by destroying the settlement they had brought in the congress of Vienna. Since there was no possibility of such things happening again to that extent their alliance weakened.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:-
B.V. Rao  (2005)  HISTORY OF MODERN EUROPE LAIBACH (1821-1822); Sterling Publisher Put Ltd
C.Phillips, A Alan (2001) TREATY OF AXI-LA-CHAPELLE ;Encyclopedia Of Historical Treaties And Alliance
D. STEVEN (2004): THE HISTORY OF FIRST WORLD WAR; Penguin Book
R.Lodge (1930) STUDIES IN EIGHTEEN CENTURY DIPLOMACY, (1740-1748)  J, Marry London
R.E. Shirley (2003) EUROPE SINCE 1715-1919; Reny Miclos, Roin