COLONIALISM

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MEANING OF  COLONIALISM
       Colonialism is the establishment, exploitation, maintenance, acquisition and expansion of colonies in one territory by people from another territory. It is a set of  unequal relationships between the colonial power and the colony and often between the colonialist and the indigenous.
The European colonial era was the era from the 16th century when several European powers established colonies in Asia Africa and the America.                              
MEANING OF NEO COLONIALISM
Is the representation of imperialism in its final and perhaps it’s most dangerous stage. In the past it was possible to convert a country upon which a neo-colonial regime had been imposed Egypt in the nineteenth century is an example into a colonial territory. They argue that in order to qualify for these loans (as well as other forms of economic aid), weaker nations are forced to take steps favorable (structural adjustments) to the financial interests of the IMF/WB,detrimental
to their own economies and often safety, increasin rather than alleviating their poverty.
         Critics of neocolonialism portray the choice to grant or to refuse granting loans (particularly those financing otherwise unpayable Third World debt), especially by international financial institutions such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, as a decisive form of control. They argue that in order to qualify for these loans (as well as other forms of economic aid), weaker nations are forced to take steps favourable (structural adjustments) to the financial interests of the IMF/WB, but detrimental to their own economies and often safety, increasing rather than alleviating their poverty.
      critics emphasize that neocolonialism allows certain cartels of states, such as the World Bank, to control and exploit (usually) lesser developed countries (LDCs) by fostering debt. In effect, third world rulers give concessions and monopolies to foreign corporations in return for consolidation of power and monetary bribes. In most cases, much of the money loaned to these LDCs is returned to Some the favored foreign corporations. Thus, these foreign loans are, in effect, subsidies to crony corporations of the loaning state's rulers. This collusion is sometimes referred to as "the corporatocracy." Organizations accused of participating in neo-imperialism include the World Bank,
“World Trade Organization and Group of Eight, and the World Economic Forum. Various "first world" states, notably the United States, are said to be involved. An insider's first-hand description of the corporatocracy is described in the book Confessions of an Economic Hitman by John Perkins.”[1]

BACK GROUND OF NEO-COLONIZATION
             The term “neo-colonialism” has been used to refer to a variety of context since the decolonization that  took place after world war two. Generally it does not refer to any type of direct colonization, but colonialism by other means. Specifically, neo-colonialism refers to the theory that former or existing economic relationship- the general agreement on tariffs and trade (GATT) and the central American free trade agreement –are used to maintain control of former colonies after formal  independence was achieved. In broader usage , neo-colonialism may simply refer to the involvement of powerful countries in the affairs of less powerful countries; this is especially relevant in modern Latin America. In this sense, neo-colonialism implies a form of economic imperialism
MEANING OFDEVELOPING COUNTRIES
 is a nation with a lower living standard, underdeveloped industrial base, and low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries. There is no universal, agreed-upon criterion for what makes a country developing versus developed and which countries fit these two categories, although there are general reference points such as a nation's GDP per capita compared to other nations.

ECONOMIC METHODS TO ELIMINATE NEO COLONIALISM.

            To avoid individual monopoly economic and political power, African countries should diversity their economies from monoculture to both industrial and Agricultural sector, Agriculture in South Africa contributes around 10% of formal employment, relatively low compared to other parts of Africa, as well as providing work for casual laborers and contributing around 2.6 percent of GDP for the nation. The South African government has set a target of transferring 30% of productive farmland from whites to 'previously disadvantaged' blacks by 2014. Land reform has been criticized both by farmers' groups and by landless workers, the latter alleging that the pace of change has not been fast enough, and the former alleging 'racist' treatment and expressing concerns that a similar situation to Zimbabwe's land reform policy may develop, a fear exacerbated by comments made by former deputy president PhumzileMlambo-Ngcuka
“The government has been accused of either putting in too much effort, or not enough effort, to tackle the problem of farm attacks as opposed to other forms of violent crime.”[2]
 Africa should develop their own science and technology, Science and technology in Africa, has unfolded since the dawn of human history; the first evidence often use by our hominid ancestors is interred in valleys across Sub-Saharan Africa. Currently, forty percent of African-born scientists live in OECD countries, predominantly NATO and EU countries. This has been described as an African brain. Although parks have a long history in the US and Europe, their presence across Africa is still limited, as the continent currently lags behind other regions of the world in terms of funding technological development and innovation.
“In recent years, a greater volume of African countries have embraced technology as a driver of and Rwanda's rapid ICT growth. Telecom innovation in particular has broadly improved quality of life across sub-Saharan Africa. Also, continent-wide membership in social networking sites such as Face book and Tokea! has risen to over 100,000 by 2012”[3]
 By development self-sustainable and self-reliance Economies, the  developing countries must have enough sustainable economy so as to overcome the problem of poverty in the countries. Agriculture in South Africa contributes around 10% of formal employment, relatively low compared to other parts of Africa, as well as providing work for casual laborers and contributing around 2.6 percent of GDP for the nation.  The South African government has set a target of transferring 30% of productive farmland from whites to 'previously disadvantaged' blacks by 2014. Land reform has been criticized both by farmers' groups and by landless workers, the latter alleging that the pace of change has not been fast enough, and the former alleging 'racist' treatment and expressing concerns that a similar situation to Zimbabwe's land reform policy may develop, a fear exacerbated by comments made by former deputy president Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka.
“The government has been accused of either putting in too much effort, or not enough effort to tackle the problem of farm attacks as opposed to other forms of violent crime.”[4]
Regaining control of their own economy, which can make them free of neo-colonialism. Through the process of decolonization many of developing countries seems to be free from the hand of colonialism but was not true they came with another exploitation term which is neo-colonialism . In order to escape this they must regain control of their own economy.

                “Through the process of decolonization that  began in
                  most African territories. The third world countries must
                   regain the controlling and maintain their economies and
                   make sure that these countries must benefit from their
                    economy. Human who is incapable of thinking in a subjective
                     way of his or her own way so as to control his or her own
                     economy.”[5]
The establishing the use of their own natural and human resources. When these third world countries use their natural resources effectively they can manage to eliminate the neo-colonialism in their countries. There is a lot of natural resources in developing countries which can cause to encourage the development and when used effectively also it can eliminate the neo-colonialism easily.

                     “Without them your enemies will always feel free
                        to kick sand into your eyes. Successful and detection
                        of future will required more resources increase sharing
                        of intelligences. In order to eliminate neo-colonialism
                         into practice there is the possibility of that situations of
                          using our own natural and human resources to the development
                           of the nation. The countries must manage to control their own natural
                            resource
The concentrating resources on expansion and growth of the economy. This means that the developing countries must concentrate much on the resources so as to make their economy to grow smoothly. They can concentrate by use it effectively so through this they can manage to eliminate the neo-colonialism because of their controlling of their resources in bringing about development.

                “The nonproliferation system is going to work existing
                   approaches will need to be improved and expanded Successful
                   and early detection of future. These nations must concentrate on how
                    these economic growth and at the micro-level between interventions to
                    provide and lead to expansion of human resources.”[7]
SOCIAL METHODS TO ELIMINATE NEO COLONIALISM .
                Avoid civil war and conflict, the conflicts that we are talking about is among developing countries themselves for instance in South Sudan, but the country could as the power struggle between President Savakis and former Vice President RiekMachar continues.Germany's new Foreign Minister Frank Walter Steamier along with his international colleagues warned that the conflict must not spread to the rest of the county. Hundreds of people got killed in the weeks before Christmas, tens of thousands are on the run. What began in the capital Juba has already reached some of the provinces although "most people in South Sudan are not affected," as expert MareikeSchomerus of the London School of Economics told DW.
Different ethnics groups in the region have been fighting with each other for decades. Sudan had to endure almost 50 years of civil war until a 2005 peace deal was achieved. More than 2 million people died in the conflict. Rebel groups from the south rose up against the government in the north and since the 1980s the insurgency was mostly conducted by the Sudan People's Liberation Army of John Garang.
                        “theDinka, the largest ethnic group making up
                         around 40 percent of the population. Machar,
                        who's now accused of instigating a coup against
                       Kiir, is a member of the Nuer group which makes
                       up around 20 percent of the 8 million to 9 million
                      people in the country. Those ethnic groups are being
                    mobilizied.”[8]
                            
            Africa should reject the western culture and dressing, in order to eliminate the neo colonialism must be to reject it for example, Arab culture refers to the culture in the countries in which the official language is Arabic (although the Arabic language in some of them is the language of minority), and the west officials and scholars used to call them "Arab countries" of Western Asia and North Africa, from Morocco to the Arabian Sea. Language, literature, gastronomy, art, architecture, music, spirituality, philosophy, and mysticism (etc.) are all part of the cultural heritage of the pan-Arab world.The Arab world is sometimes divided into separate regions including Nile Valley (consisting of Egypt and Sudan), Al-Maghrib Al-Arabi (consisting of Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, and Mauritania),Fertile Crescent (consisting of Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon, Syria, Palestine and Jordan) and theArabian Peninsula (consisting of Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Oman and the UAE) and the Arabian Peninsula's Al-Janoub Al-Arabi (consisting of Yemen and Oman).
                   “The Arab Culture is divided into three main parts, the Urban
             Culture (Al-Hadar), the Rural Culture  (Al-Reef), and the Nomad
             Culture (Al-Badow). Typically, countries like Egypt, Iraq, Syria,
            Yemen, Sudan, and Morocco are considered Rural Cultures, while
           Saudi Arabia, Libya, Mauritania and Jordan are considered Badow
          (Bedouins).”[9]
                   To protect the African moral, The ideas and beliefs about moral conduct are articulated, analyzed, and interpreted by the moral thinkers of the society.African societies, as organized and functioning human communities, have undoubtedly evolved ethical systems—ethical values, principles, rules—intended to guide social and moral behavior. But and interpretation. In the last three decades or so, attempts have been made by contemporary African philosophers to give sustained reflective attention to African moral ideas. This entry is intended to make some contribution to the understanding of African ethical thinking.

“The entry makes the African moral language its point of departure, for the language of morality gives insight into the moral thinking or ideas of the society. The centrality of the notions of character and moral personhood,”.[10]
POLITICAL METHOD TO ELIMINATE NEO COLONIALISM
The third world countries should formulate their own democracy. Democracy promotion” or “democracy support” in Kenya has been whether there is something that can be done to assist Kenyans in building meaningful, coherent political parties that are more than amorphous vehicles for individual ambitions and a “tribal” spoils system.  .

“ Certainly Uhuru’s record as a party builder is not encouraging.  After being tapped as KANU leader by Moi in 2002 and losing to Kibaki he kept leadership of the party (with Ruto as a Secretary General) and was one of the leading figures in the formation of the Orange Democratic Movement as leader of the Official Opposition in Parliament, campaigning against the “Wako Draft” constitution in Central Province during the November 2005 referendum”[11]

Africa should encourage and strengthen The regional integration, Regional integration is a process in which states enter into a regional agreement in order to enhance regional cooperation through regional institutions and rules. The objectives of the agreement could range from economic to political to environmental, although it has typically taken the form of a political economy initiative where commercial interests have been the focus for achieving broader socio-political and security objectives.

trade which focuses on economic exchange primarily between countries of the same region or economic zone. In recent years countries within economic-trade regimes such as SEAN in Southeast Asia for example have increased the level of trade and commodity exchange reduces foreign markets resulting in growing prosperity” protect democrats; support the development of information technology in Africa.[12].
CULTURAL METHODS TO ELIMINATE NEO COLONIALISM.
                                       
            To maintain African culture, The culture of Africa is varied and manifold. It is a product of the diverse populations that today inhabit the continent of Africa and the African Diaspora. Like much of the world, it has been impacted upon by both internal and external forces.in Northwest Africa) shares similar properties with the Grand boubou, the Dashiki, and the Senegalese. in Nigeria women were head ties In Sahel Ian Africa, the dashiki.

                  “ Cultural imperialism or cultural dependency occurs
                    with the western countries influence on the language,
                    values and altitudes (including religion), ways of
                   organizing public life , style of politics, forms of
                   education and professional training, clothing style
                  and many other cultural habits. It creates a new kinds
                 of model of dominations called neo-colonialism which
                 has sparked new kind of struggle to eradicate this enduring
                 cultural influence in the third world.”[13]  
         The control of  tradition medicine, also is another method of eliminating the  neo-colonialism to the third world countries. This means there were tradition medicine which were used  but after neo-colonialism to take place they destroy the tradition medicine and introduce the western medicine which is not much good for our health.

                        “The western medicine seems to be better than
                         tradition medicines for faceless investors to mass
                         global travel is as relentless and destruct the tradition
                         medicine. The traditional medicine were destroyed by
                         European aggression during the times by neo-colonialism
                        which cause underdevelopment of the third world countries.” [14]

 IMPACTS OF NEO COLONIAL IN DEVEPMENT COUNTRIES.

Dependence of economy, Much of Africa relies on foreign aid, despite economic growth in parts of the continent significantly outpacing the global average. With many Western donors re-examining their foreign aid commitments as a result of economic downturns at home, changes are afoot and new alliances are being forged. The UK has announced that it will stop giving direct aid to South Africa in 2015, arguing that the progress made since the end of apartheid means it no longer needs aid currently worth £19m a year. While the decision to stop helping Africa’s biggest economy seems relatively straightforward, decisions to allocate or halt aid can sometimes be politically charge
Decline of Africa industries, The decline of the of industries in Africa is caused due to the damping of goods and importing their modern industries lead the decline of industries and also in Africa and also In the IMF’s view, the industrial countries are the United States, the United Kingdom, most West European nations, Canada and Japan. A special category called“other developed areas” includes such other European lands as Finland, Greece and Ireland, plus Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.
“There is no shortage of economic growth in Africa. Several countries have enjoyed growth in income per person of more than 5% a year since 2007. Yet in countries like Zambia, the country’s rising GDP has passed much of the population by..”[15]           
            Destruction of African economy, the production of merchandise for use or sale using labor and machinestools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished on a large scale.       
            Source of Globalization in Africa, The Impact of Globalization on Africa's Social and Economic Conditions In the twentieth century, the phenomenon of globalization rapidly swept across the world forcefully and powerfully. The very concept of globalization is difficult to exactly define, as it has vast meanings to a vast number of people. Globalization is a relatively new term used to describe a very old process
                                                    
 “There are several aspects of globalization that are not debated. Globalization certainly has not affected all people equally. Additionally, one may convincingly argue that globalization is driven by”. [16]

            Formal education, Formal learning, normally delivered by trained teachers in a systematic intentional way within a school, academy/college/institute or university, is one of three forms of learning as defined by the OECD, the others being informal learning, which typically takes place naturally as part of some other activity, and non-formal learning, which includes everything else, such as sports instruction provided by non-trained educators without a formal curriculum
                        Increase of unemployment, it occurs when people are without work and actively seeking work.]The unemployment rate is a measure of the prevalence of unemployment and it is calculated as a percentage by dividing the number of unemployed individuals by all individuals currently in the labor force. During periods of recession, an economy usually experiences a relatively high unemployment rate.] According to International Labor Organization report, more than 197 million people globally are out of work or 6% of the world's workforce were without a job in 2012.
Separation of families,  As opposed to the mountains of luggage that usually accompany our family trips, this time I was taking a single suitcase and a slim briefcase, which should have made things easier, only it didn’t. After being the one to “woman” the fort solo and see my husband off on countless trips since our marriage, this time it was my turn to fly, his to stay behind. And there I was at the last moment, still fiddling around with all the lists I’d drawn up earlier I’d left my husband, my four babies (one’s taller than I am!) and a big chunk of my heart behind for the first time since they were born. We were being re-baptized into the growing community of people experiencing separation.
          A spread disease, disease is an abnormal condition that affects the body of an organism. It is often construed as medical condition associated with specific symptoms and signs.[1] It may be caused by factors originally from an external source, such as infectious disease, or it may be caused by internal dysfunctions, such as autoimmune diseases. In humans, "disease" is often used more broadly to refer to any condition that causes pain, dysfunction, distress, social problems, or death to the person afflicted, or similar problems for those in contact with the person.
            Increase of insecurity, is the measure of the stability of an individual's emotional state.  A person whose general happiness is not very shaken even by major disturbances in the pattern or fabric of their life might be said to be extremely emotionally secure.

“Describes an insecure person as a person who "perceives the world as a threatening jungle and most human beings as dangerous and selfish; feels a rejected and isolated person, anxious and hostile; is generally “pessimistic and unhappy;.”[17]           

Low free and election, multiparty elections have taken root in Africa, with five presidential votes and 12 parliamentary and legislative elections held in 2012. Since the 1990s an increasing number of African countries have introduced elections, legalized multiparty systems and fixed-term limits for elected leaders. However, the interruption of two presidential election campaigns in 2012 by military coups – in Mali and Guinea-Bissau illustrates the fragility of democratic progress. New evidence has shown that democratization since the 1960s has encouraged income growth.

"Scribing a type of foreign intervention, because of "Neo-colonialism" became the standard term, de its practical and historical application to the internal affairs (economic, social, and political) of the countries of the Pan-Africans movement and because of its like usage in the Bandung Conference (Asian–African Conference”[18]
  Increase of terrorism in Africa In the neo-colonialist territories, since the former colonial power has in theory relinquished political control, if the social conditions occasioned by neo-colonialism because a revolt the local neo-colonialist government can be sacrificed and another equally subservient one substituted in its place. On the other hand, in any continent where neo-colonialism exists on a wide scale the same social pressures which can produce revolts in neo-colonial territories will also affect those States which have refused to accept the system and therefore neo-colonialist nations have a ready-made weapon with which they can threaten their opponents if they appear successfully to be challenging the system.     

CONCLUSION

           In addition to that the  neo-colonialism is the silence killer to developing countries because it exploit the third world countries without knowing themselves. Also this situation need a good plan foe eliminating it so the government  must be provided to all people of developing countries must be encouraged to make or to formulate a certain community which can unity them in eliminating this form of colonialism which is the last form of imperialism. Then education must be provided to all people of developing nation so as all people to aware on what is going on so as can encouraged people to unite together and to eliminate all forms of colonialism in developing countries. After eliminating these forms of colonialism the third word countries can manage to make changes and develop their countries. , furthermore, in the forms or patterns of behavior that are considered by the members of the society to bring about social harmony and cooperative living, justice, and fairness.
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[1]Shillington, Kevin (1989, 1995). History of neo colonialism in africa, . St.   Martin's Press, New York.

[2]Walter Rodney:how european underdeveloped africa ,English press,NAIROB,1989.pg 90

[3]B.H. Warmington, (1960), neo colonialism in african countries Vikør Bergen,pg644
                                
[4]A figho ,A.E,Ayandele E, ( 1986) neo colonialism in  africa,long groupultd ,ltd England  pg67

[5] Nkurumah K.(1966), Neo-colonoalism: The last stage of imperialism. Library of congress
[6] Rodney W.(1989), How Europe underdeveloped Africa. Nairobi; English press. Page 32.
[7] Rolanda O. et al.(1967), Africa since 1800. London;Cambridge university press.
[8] Phillip C.(1978), friAcan history. Boston; little, Brown and company.
[9] Semakula   K.(1972), From colonialism to independence. Nairobi; East Africa literature Bureau.

                                                                                                                                   
[10]Philip cultin (1978),African history ,little,brown and company ,bostonpg 89

[11]National Geographic Channel (2001).Neo- colonialism to Africa (TV/Video).Edward William Bovill, The Golden
                                                            Trade of the Moors (Princeton: Markus Wiener, Pg11

[12]Bhilipcultin(1978),african history ,little,brown and company ,boston PG 87
[13] Lee A. et al (2001), The media globe: Trends in international mass media. U.S.A ; Library of congress cataloging in publication data. Page 34.
[14] Paula A. et al (2012), An encyclopedia of life in the republic. Voln 1. Library of congress of cataloging in    publication. Page 272.

[15]Semakulakiwanuka (1972),fom colonialism to new colonialism  east Africa
                                               literature, bureau,Nairobi pg67
[16]National Geographic Channel (2001).neo colonialism to africa (TV/Video).Edward
[17]Mbwilizi,J.F ;THE DEVELOPMENT OF AFRICA SOCIETIES UP TO THE 19 TH C,BOOK ONE,DUPLTD,DSM,2000.pg 2
[18]Semakulakiwanuka (1972),FOM COLONIALISMTON INDEPENDENCE  east Africa literature, bureau,Nairobipg 78